Levels of Genetic Regulation
Genetic regulation can occur at many different levels -- in fact, if you can imagine a mechanism of genetic regulation it probably exists somewhere. A few examples of levels of regulation known to occur in bacteria include:
A cartoon showning some of the levels of DNA regulation is shown below.
- changes in the structure of DNA (e.g., by DNA bending, methylation, protein-binding, or recombination),
- influencing RNA polymerase binding to promoter sequences and initiating transcription (e.g., via binding of repressor or activator proteins),
- premature termination of transcription (e.g., via attenuation),
- influencing the access of ribosomes to the ribosome binding site on the mRNA (e.g., by an antisense RNA)
- modulation of mRNA turnover (e.g., by polyadenylation)
- protein folding (e.g., mediated by chaparones)
- binding of allosteric effectors (e.g., cofactors)
- covalent modification of proteins (e.g. phosphorylation, adenylation, etc)
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Last modified December 6, 2005