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F660
 88-9

State of California
The Resources Agency
Department of Fish and Game

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SALTON SEA SPORT FISHERY, 1982-83

 

by
Glenn F. Black
Region 5, Inland Fisheries

 

Inland Fisheries
Administrative Report No. 88-9
1988

 

3 0650 01690 9216

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT

3

INTRODUCTION

4-9

Physical Description of the Salton Sea

4

History of the Salton Sea Fishery

6

Present Salton Sea Fishery

7

Salton Sea Sportfish Regulations

9

Study Objectives

9

METHODS

10-11

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

11-43

Area of Angler Origin

11

Angler Types

11

Average Duration of Angler Day

14

Species Composition of Catch by Angler Type

14

Boat Anglers

14

Jetty Anglers

17

Shore Anglers

17

Catch Rates by Angler Category and Species

20

Boat Anglers

20

Jetty Anglers

20

Shore Anglers

24

Use, Catch, Effort and Success by Month

25

Catch Composition by Species and Area

25

Orangemouth Corvina

25

Tilapia

29

Bairdiella

29

Sargo

29

Sportfish Lengths and weights

36

Orangemouth Corvina

36

Tilapia

36

Bairdiella

40

Sargo

40

Angling Quality Relative to Other California Sportfisheries

40

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

43-45

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

46

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

46

REFERENCES

47-50


- 3 -

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SALTON SEA SPORT FISHERY, 1982-831/

by

Glenn F. Black2/

 

ABSTRACT

An angler creel census was conducted at the Salton Sea, California, from October 1982 through September 1983, to determine catch-per-unit-effort, catch composition by area, angler type (shore, jetty, or boat), size of fish caught and area of angler origin. Census clerks interviewed 19,053 anglers who fished 70,756 hours and caught 103,301 sportfish at an average catch rate of 1.46 fish per hour.

The Mozambique mouthbrooder, Tilapia mossambica, made up 41% of the total sportfish catch, followed by bairdiella (croaker), Bairdiella icistia, and sargo, Anisotremus davidsoni, at 28% each, and orangemouth corvina, Cynoscion xanthulus, at 3%. The Tilapia catch represents the first reported California sportfishery for this genus. The redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii, was not found during this census, even though it a occassionally been seen in angler and Department of Fish and Game gill net catches during the late 1970's. Mean angler catch rates in fish per hour were 0.60 for tilapia, 0.41 for bairdiella and sargo, and 0.04 for corvina. Angler effort was highest from February through June. In terms of catch per hour, the data show that the Salton Sea sportfishery is one of California's highest quality fisheries.

Angler origin has changed little since 1966-69. A total of 75% of Salton Sea anglers came from outside of Imperial and Riverside counties, with Los Angeles County contributing the largest percentage (37%). Length measurements together with size-at-sexual maturity information for corvina caught by sport anglers suggest that a significant portion were removed prior to sexual maturity. Similar data for tilapia, bairdiella, and sargo do not indicate premature exploitation.
________________

1/ Inland Fisheries Administrative Report No. 88-9. Edited by Arthur C. Knutson, Jr., Inland Fisheries Division, Sacramento.

2/ Associate Fishery Biologist, Inland Fisheries, Region 5, 15378 Bird Farm Road, Chino, CA 91710.

- 4 -

INTRODUCTION

Physical Description of the Salton Sea

The Salton Sea, located in the southeastern Riverside and Imperial counties, is California's largest inland water (Figure 1). It is 58 km long and 14 km to 22 km wide, encompassing approximately 930 km2 of surface area and having 153 km of shoreline. The Sea lies in a desert basin (Salton Sink), which is 83 m below sea level and receives only 5 cm of rainfall per year (Hely et al. 1966). Information on the geologic and hydrologic history of the Salton Sink and its relationship to the Colorado River can be found in Hely et al. (1966) and Walker (1961).

The Sea's water surface elevation is maintained indirectly by the Colorado River through the transportation of water through the All American and Coachella canals for irrigation in the Coachella and Imperial valleys (Figure 1). Agricultural wastewater, which contains high salt concentrations, is collected and carried by gravity flow through an extensive drainage network which empties either directly into the Sea or into one of three major tributaries (Alamo, New, and Whitewater rivers) which in turn flow directly into the Sea (Figure 1). The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1981) estimates that the average annual precipitation at the Sea contributes 4.3 X 107 m3 of water, or 2.5% of the total annual inflow, while agricultural wastewater accounts for 1.73 X 109 m3 or 97.5% of the annual inflow. There is no outlet for water to leave the Sea other than through evaporation.

Since water may leave the Sea only by evaporation, salts accumulate rapidly. A 1966 hydrologic report (Hely et al. 1966) estimates that 4 million tons of minerals, predominantly sodium and chloride, flow into the Sea annually as a result of minerals that are leached from agricultural lands. At the time of the Sea's formation (1905-07), the salinity was approximately 4 parts per thousand (ppt) of total dissolved solids (TDS), but by 1936 it had risen to 43 ppt TDS due to increased agricultural use of surrounding desert lands (Hely et al. 1966). Due to varying amounts of agricultural drainage water entering the Sea and rainfall in the basin, the Sea's mineral content has fluctuated between 32 and 41 ppt TDS since 1942 (Black l983a). At present, the Sea's salinity is approximately 41 ppt TDS.

The water elevation and depth also have undergone wide fluctuations since the Sea's formation. In 1908, the elevation was approximately 60 m below sea level and the maximum depth 24 m (Hely et al. 1966). By 1925, the elevation had dropped to 76 m below sea level and the maximum depth to 9 m. Between 1948 and the present, the Sea's elevation has risen from 73 m below sea level to 69 m and the maximum depth increased from 11 m to 16 m. Elevation fluctuations have caused numerous flooding problems for adjacent landowners.

 
FIGURE 1. The Salton Sea and the areas sampled during 1982-83.
- 6 -

Several physical parameters contribute to the highly eutrophic nature of the Sea. The mean depth is only 8 m and the maximum depth is approximately 16 m. Walker (1961) reported that daily surface water temperatures range from a minimum of 10°C in the winter to a maximum of 36°C in the summer. An overabundance of mineral nutrients, primarily compounds of nitrogen and phosphorous, produce intense algal blooms (U.S. Dept. Interior Fed. Water Qual. Admin. 1970). The subsequent death and decomposition of large numbers of phytoplankton often cause temporary anoxic conditions in localized areas, especially waters deeper than 9 m (Walker 1961). When these conditions exist together with high winds that commonly occur at the Sea, the entire water column sometimes becomes anoxic and fish present in these areas often suffocate (U.S. Dept. Interior Fed. Water Qual. Admin. 1970). These fish kills occur with varying severity throughout the year and become public nuisances.

History of the Salton Sea Fishery

The earliest report of fish in the Sea was by Evermann (1916), who listed five freshwater Colorado River species: (i) carp, Cyprinus carpio; (ii) bonytail, Gila robusta; (iii) Razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus; (iv) rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and (v) striped mullet, Mugil cephalus. Carp and mullet were reportedly the most an , no mention was made of any sportfishery by early authors (Evermann 1916; Thompson and Bryant 1920; Coleman 1929). By 1942, the salinity of the Sea had become 32 ppt TDS and all of the above-mentioned fish had disappeared from the Sea with the exception of mullet and carp (Dill and Woodhull 1942). They made the first mention of a sportfishery, saying that "there had been but little angling" since the close of the commercial mullet fishery in 1921. This statement probably refers to a mullet sportfishery since these authors reported that carp, catfish, and a few sunfish were present only at the mouths of the New and Alamo rivers. However, a commercial mullet fishery existed at the Sea from 1915-21 and 1943-53 (Walker 1961). The first mullet sportfishery was described by Walker (1961) as a fall and early winter snag fishery around the freshwater inlets.

As early as 1929, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) introduced striped bass, Morone saxitilis, into the Sea but was unsuccessful in establishing a sportfishery (Anon. 1930). A total of 36 fish species were stocked by the CDFG between 1929 and 1956, 32 of which were collected at San Felipe, Baja California and planted in the Sea during the 1950-56 period (Walker 1961). This approach resulted in the establishment of three species which make up a major portion of the self-sustaining sportfishery that currently exists. They are the orangemouth corvina, Cynoscion xanthulus; sargo, Anisotremus davidsoni; and Bairdiella (croaker), Bairdiella icistia (Walker l961).

The CDFG attempted to document the early sportfishery in 1958, 1963-67, and 1969 Hulquist (1981). However, the effort expended was inadequate to estimate angler use and catch.

 - 7 -  

Partyboat catch logs for the 1962-72 period were examined by Black (1974) and he demonstrated that orangemouth corvina were the primary and almost exclusive species caught. The partyboat bairdiella catch was reported only when it was used as bait for catching corvina or when fishing for corvina was poor (Black 1974). Sargo was also reported only when corvina fishing was poor.

By the mid 1970's, occasional creel census' showed that a substrate-breeding cichlid, the redbelly tilapia, Tilipia Zillii, was present in the Sea. The origin of the redbelly, Tilipia Zillii was from CDFG-approved stockings into irrigation canals and drains by local water districts to control aquatic plant growth that impeded water flow to agricultural lands and drainage to the Sea (Pelzman 1973).

In 1979, it became apparent that another cichlid had established a breeding population in the Sea and also was providing a sportfishery. This fish is a maternal mouthbrooder whose identity has only recently been resolved through electrophoretic analysis and comparison with tilapia of known origin and identity. This tilapia is the mozambique mouthbrooder, Tilipia mossambica (W. Courtenay, Professor of Zoology, Florida Atlantic Uni., pers. commun. 1985). Its probable origin is from CDFG-approved stockings for, aquatic plant control in irrigation systems (canals and drains) of the Imperial, Palo Verde, and Bard valleys of California in the mid to late 1960's (St. Amant 1966; Hoover and St. Amant 1970) and in Yuma, Arizona in 1963 (Barrett 1983). A California sportfishery for both tilapia species has not been previously reported.

Present Salton Sea Fishery

The desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, is the only fish endemic to the Salton Sink -- all others are the result of introductions (Table 1). Several of these introduced species have nearly caused the extinction of the desert pupfish due to predation, competition for available habitat, and interference with spawning behavior (Black 1980; Matsui 1981; Schoenherr 1979). Known habitat for the desert pupfish includes desert springs within the Colorado River drainage (Miller 1943) and shoreline poo1s adjacent to the Salton Sea (Barlow 1958). The desert pupfish has been extirpated from nearly all of its former range within California, with the exception of San Felipe Creek, Salt Creek, and several irrigation drains and shoreline pools tributary to or part of the Salton Sea (Black 1980; G. Black and K. Nicol, Cal. Fish and Game, unpub. manus., 1987). The precarious status of this fish's prolonged existence is such that the State of California has listed it as an endangered species in order to provide protection (Calif. Fish & Game Comm. and Dept. of Fish and Game 1980). The pupfish was designated an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1986. (Federal Register 1986).

Walker (1961) reported on the probable origin of several nongame species introductions into the Salton Sea, including the threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, the longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis, and mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis affinis (Table 1).Another species, the sailfin molly, Poecilia latapinna became established in several irrigation drains in the mid-1950's as escapees from local tropical fish hatcheries (St.Amant, Associate Fishery Biologist,CDFG, pers. commun.1984). The sailfin molly has since expanded its range to include the Salton Sea (Moyle 1976). All four of these introduced nongame species are found in the nearshore waters with the latter three also present in the shoreline pools. The common carp is included in Table 1 because although it does not inhabit the main body of the Sea, I have found it regularly in gill nets set within the brackish waters of the New and Alamo river deltas. There is no known sportfishery for carp in the Sea, so I consider it to be a nongame species.

- 8 -

TABLE 1. Present Salton Sea Fish Fauna

Game fishes

Scientific name

Common name

Cynoscion xanthulus (Jordan & Gilbert)

Orangemouth corvina

Anisotremus davidsoni (Steindachner)

Sargo

Bairdiella icistia (Jordan & Gilbert)

Bairdiella/Croaker

Tilapia mossambica (Peters)

Mozambique mouthbrooder

Tilapia zillii (Cervais)

Redbelly tilapia

Nongame fishes

Cyprinodon macularius (Baird & Girard)

Desert pupfish

Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper)

Longjaw mudsucker

Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard)

Mosquitofish

Dorosoma petenense (Gunther)

Threadfin shad

Poecilia latapinna (Le Sueur)

Sailfin molly

Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus

Common carp

- 9 -

 

The five introduced game fishes are listed in Table 1. The striped mullet was considered by Walker (1961) to be virtually extinct in 1961, and monthly Department gill-netting surveys from 1979-81 support the contention that this species is no longer present in the Sea. These surveys also demonstrated that the redbelly tilapia had extremely limited distribution within the Sea and that the Mozambique mouthbrooding tilapia was abundant throughout the Sea year-round and spawned in the nearshore waters.

Salton Sea Sportfish Regulations

Walker (1961) recommended "high rates of harvest" and no season closures for the three sport fish species present at that time. That management philosophy towards the Sea's sportfishery persists today. The only regulation on fish take is a bag limit of nine for orangemouth corvina.

Study Objectives

This paper presents information on relative angler use, catch rates, species and size composition of the catch, and related characteristics of the sportfishery. The study was not designed to estimate total cach, effort or angler use for the entire Salton Sea. It is hoped that future work will be undertaken to make these quantitative estimates to fully demonstrate the value of this sportfishery. This information is necessary in order to provide information regarding economic worth of the fishery in relation to other economic values in the region. Specific objectives of this study were to: 

(1) assess angling quality for each sportfish species expressed as catch per unit of effort (CPUE);
(2) determine the size (length) at which these fish were recruited into the sportfishery;
(3) establish baseline fishery data for existing conditions; and
(4) determine whether angler county of origin has changed since the l960's.

- 10 -

METHODS

The Sea has eight marinas with boat launching facilities, several fishing jetties, and numerous access points along its shoreline for shore fishing or launching car-top boats (Figure 1). Due to the large number of angler access points and inadequate funding for creel census clerks, it was decided that the roving creel census (Von Geldern and Tomlinson 1973) was the most appropriate method to realize the study objectives.

All areas could not be sampled adequately due to the travel time required to drive around (3 hours) or circumnavigate (5 hours) the Sea by boat. Weekend creel census efforts during the period 1963-69 (Hulquist 1981) showed that anglers fishing from North Shore Marina to Red Hill Marina represented all areas and could be adequately censused by two creel clerks. Therefore, eight sampling sites were chosen within this area for the census; all are located on the eastern side of the Sea. These areas included four marinas and three fishing jetties; from north to south, they were North Shore Marina, Salton Sea State Park Headquarters, Mecca Beach, Corvina Beach, Salt Creek, Bombay Beach, Niland Marina, and Red Hill Marina. All of the eight sampling locations provided fishing for shore anglers and all but one (Mecca Beach) allowed at least car&emdash;top boat access.

Sampling days were randomly chosen based on the ratio of weekend days and holidays to weekdays for each month. Four major holidays were excluded - - Christmas, New Years, Easter, and Thanksgiving. Sixteen sampling days were selected each month during the 12-month census (October 1982 through September 1983). Sampling days began approximately 0800 h and continued until 1700-1800 h during the late fall, winter, and early spring. Due to the extremely warm mid-day air temperatures in the late spring, summer, and early fall that reduced angling pressure, census days were divided into an early morning census from 0700 h until approximately 1200 h and a late afternoon census from about 1700 h to 2000 h. If the weather (wind or rain) did not permit censusing, then the missed sample day was replaced by another similar day (weekend day/holiday or weekday) during the same month. However, if the missed sample occurred near the end of the month, the sample was not always replaced. Night censusing was not done because local anglers indicated that little fishing effort occurred then.

Census clerks interviewed all anglers encountered. One clerk interviewed anglers in the four northern areas and the other clerk in the four southern areas on the same day. Clerks drove to the census locations and walked the shoreline or jetty. Each location was generally censused in the morning and again in the afternoon.

For each angler interviewed, the following information was recorded: (i) date; (ii) location; (iii) angler type (shore, jetty, boat); (iv) number of each fish species kept; (v) angler's sex; (vi) area of origin; (vii) angler's beginning fishing time; (viii) time of interview; (ix) whether the angler had completed fishing for the day, and (x) the number of anglers in the group. In addition, the total lengths (TL) of each orangemouth corvina, bairdiella, and tilapia and fork lengths (TL) of each sargo were recorded in millimeters (mm). Since anglers could be encountered more than once during a sampling day, each angler or angling party already censused that day who had not completed fishing was given a numbered identification card for subsequent interviews. For the same reason, each fish measured was given a caudal fin clip.

- 11-

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Area of Angler Origin

During the 1982-83 creel census, 75% of the almost 19,000 anglers interviewed lived outside of Riverside and Imperial counties (Table 2), which is an insignificant change in the past 15 years. Creel census interviews of approximately 12,500 Salton Sea anglers for 26 weekend days during the 1966-69 period showed that 78% of the anglers had permanent residences outside of Riverside and Imperial counties (Hulquist 1981). Hulquist (1981) reported that Los Angeles County anglers contributed the largest percentage of use (39%); followed by San Bernardino (15%), San Diego (14%), Riverside (12%), Imperial (10%), Orange (8%), other California counties (1%), and out of state (1%). Information from the 1982-83 census (Table 2) shows that there have not been any major changes in angler origin at the Sea since 1966-69. Increased percentage use was detected for California anglers residing further away than the six southern counties within a 2 to 3 hour drive of the Sea; 8% of the 1982-83 anglers were from these other California counties as compared to only 1% during 1966-69 (Hulquist 1981). The monthly percentage of total angler use by residents of the six southern counties is quite variable. For example, Los Angeles County residents contributed 29% of the total use in December of 1982 as compared to 55% in September of 1983.

Angler Types

All of the three angler types caught all four sportfish available in the Sea. Of the 19,053 anglers interviewed, 10,993, or 58%, were shore anglers (Figure 2). Shore angler use was the highest in April (1,729) and the lowest in August (406). Jetty anglers numbered 4,748, or 25% of the total. The most use occurred in February (656 anglers), while theleast use occurred in August (92 anglers). The 3,312 boat anglers made up 17% of the total anglers interviewed. This percentage is probably an underestimate of relative boat angler use because the roving land clerk had less chance of encountering a boat angler than the more stationary shore and jetty anglers. Creel clerks censused the most boat anglers in November (647) and April 1983 (640), and the least in July 1983 (26). Relative use by all angler groups is greatest during the fall, late winter, and early spring months (Figure 2), probably because of favorable climatic conditions rather than fishing quality.

TABLE 2. Area of Origin for Anglers Using the Salton Sea Creel Census - October 1982 through September 1983.

Area of Origin

Los Angeles
county
San Diego
County
Riverside
County
San Bernardino
County
Imperial
County

Months

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Oct.

977

44

259

12

361

16

275

12

105

5

Nov.

919

42

317

14

318

14

281

13

129

6

Dec.

315

29

136

13

196

18

132

12

84

8

Jan.

351

32

65

6

162

15

152

14

31

3

Feb.

590

31

203

11

308

16

173

9

132

7

Mar.

648

30

253

12

327

15

186

8

344

16

Apr.

862

33

434

16

430

16

333

13

218

8

May

681

37

236

13

292

16

241

13

111

6

June

578

40

149

10

262

18

161

11

140

10

July

371

38

104

11

282

29

99

10

94

10

Aug.

250

47

48

9

147

28

30

6

34

6

Sept.

502

55

56

6

184

20

75

8

50

5

Totals

7044

37

2260

12

3269

17

2138

16

1472

8

TABLE 2, cont. Area of Origin for Anglers Using the Salton Sea Creel Census - October 1982 through September 1983.

Area of Origin

Orange
County
Other Calif.
counties
Out of
state
Foreign
country

Months

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Totals

Oct.

67

3

106

5

55

2

0

0

2205

Nov.

92

4

75

3

45

2

14

<1

2190

Dec.

21

2

117

11

67

6

8

<1

1076

Jan.

26

2

246

22

59

5

3

<1

1095

Feb.

108

6

269

14

92

5

9

<1

1884

Mar.

68

3

267

12

75

3

11

<1

2179

Apr.

136

5

185

7

43

2

1

<1

2642

May

114

6

109

6

44

2

0

0

1828

June

62

4

75

5

8

<1

0

0

1435

July

15

2

16

2

0

0

0

0

981

Aug.

18

3

0

0

2

<1

0

0

529

Sept.

16

2

31

3

6

<1

0

0

920

Totals

743

4

1496

8

496

3

46

<1

*18,964

*This total differs from total number of anglers in Table 4 due to missing angler origin information for 89 anglers.

 

- 13 -

 

FIGURE 2. Number of boat, jetty, and shore anglers interviewed each month during Salton Sea creel census - October 1982 through September 1983.

- 14 -

Average Duration of Angler Day

Complete trip information was used to determine the average length of an angler day for each angler type (Table 3). Jetty anglers spent the most time fishing per day, an average of 5.0 h but the monthly averages were highly variable, from 2.4 to 6.7 h. Shore and boat anglers spent similiar time per completed fishing day, 4.2 h and 4.4 h, respectively, while monthly averages ranged between 3.1 h and 4.8 h, and between 2.8 h and 6.6 h, respectively.

Species Composition of Catch By Angler Type

Boat Anglers

Boat anglers caught 29,564 fish in 15,177 h of fishing, for a success rate of 1.95 fish per hour. Tilapia comprised 45% (13,263) of the total boat angler catch (Figure 3), 1/ and accounted for as much as 77% (November) and as little as 8% (March) of the total monthly catch. Peak tilapia catches occurred in October and November, when 2,624 and 6,857 fish were creeled, respectively. The lowest catches were recorded from July through September when less than 100 tilapia were caught each month, apparently because of decreased fishing pressure (Figure 2). Tilapia were the most numerous sportfish caught in 50% of the months sampled.

The second most numerous fish in the boat anglers' creel was sargo, which accounted for 8,683 fish and 29% of the overall catch (Figure 3). From December through April, sargo made up 35% to 57% of the monthly catch and for February, March, and April it was the most numerous of the four sportfish caught. The largest numbers of sargo were taken in October and November and February and March. Sargo were creeled in the lowest numbers from May through September when the fishing effort was the lowest (Figure 2).

The catch of bairdiella ranked third in the total catch by boat anglers -- 5,939 fish made up 20% of the total catch (Figure 3). The catch was very low during the months of November through January, when a total of only 231 bairdiella were creeled; bairdiella contributed to no more than 3% of the total sportfish catch in these months. Beginning in February and continuing through June there was an increasing catch, with the highest catches occurring in May (1,488 fish) and June (1,171 fish). During these two months, bairdiella comprised 58% and 59%, respectively, of the boat anglers' total sportfish catch.

The least abundant fish creeled by boat anglers was corvina, which numbered 1,679 and accounted for only 6% of the boat anglers' catch during the year (Figure 3). From October through January, corvina made up 1% or less of the total monthly catch of sportfish -- only 115 fish were sampled during this time period.

1/ No redbelly tilapia were identified from the anglers catch during the census. It appears that they may no longer provide a sportfishery in the Sea. All subsequent references to tilapia in this report are for the T. mossambica, hereafter referred to as tilapia.

- 15 -

TABLE 3. Average Duration of Completed Angler Days by Angler Type and Month, 1982-83

Month

Angler
Type

Days
Fished
Total Hours
Fished
Hours Fished
Per Day

October

Shore

104

500

4.8

Boat

240

1103

4.6

Jetty

69

418

6.0

November

Shore

86

281

3.3

Boat

350

1584

4.5

Jetty

34

152

4.5

December

Shore

22

97

4.4

Boat

99

405

4.1

Jetty

25

59

2.4

January

Shore

36

163

4.5

Boat

53

147

2.8

Jetty

26

126

4.8

February

Shore

65

202

3.1

Boat

130

459

3.5

Jetty

54

274

5.1

March

Shore

56

258

4.6

Boat

383

1753

4.6

Jetty

111

570

5.1

April

Shore

50

215

4.8

Boat

299

1425

4.3

Jetty

21

98

6.7

May

Shore

34

224

4.4

Boat

68

302

6.6

Jetty

9

30

3.4

June

Shore

0

Boat

12

60

5.0

Jetty

0

July

No information recorded

August

No information recorded

September

Shore

43

120

3.2

Boat

18

58

2.8

Jetty

54

308

5.7

Totals

Shore

496

2062

4.2

Boat

1652

7297

4.4

Jetty

403

2036

5.0

 - 16 -

FIGURE 3. Species composition (percent and numbers) of sportfish caught by boat anglers each month during Salton Sea creel census -- October through September 1983.

- 17 -

Boat anglers caught the most corvina in March (541) and April (518) when this fish comprised 20% of the catch each month. Only 79 corvina were censused from the boat anglers' creel during July through September, probably due to very low fishing pressure (Figure 2).

 

Jetty Anglers

Jetty anglers caught 36,014 fish in 18,156 h of angling, for an average success rate of 1.98 fish per hour. The most numerous fish caught by jetty anglers was sargo; 13,336 sargo comprised 37% of the sportfish kept by this angler group (Figure 4). Sargo ranked as the most abundant sportfish caught by jetty anglers during 50% of the months censused. They caught 1,000 or more sargo in seven of the 12 months; the highest catches were in February (2,075 fish), June (2,035 fish), and July (1,805 fish). The percentage of sargo in the monthly catch ranged from 16% (March) to 81% (November). The sargo catch by jetty anglers was more consistent throughout the year than that by boat anglers.

Bairdiella was the second most abundant fish caught by jetty anglers; 11,455 bairdiella contributed 32% of the total catch (Figure 4). Bairdiella totals were highest in March (2,809 fish), June (2,920 fish), and July. (2,063 fish) and were the most numerous sportfish in their catch during March and May. This fish made up 71% of the monthly catch in May. Only 45 (<3%) were censused from November through January. The low bairdiella catch during these months was also evident in the boat anglers' catch.

Tilapia ranked third in the jetty anglers' catch; 10,521 tilapia comprised 29% of the catch (Figure 4). Tilapia were the most abundant sportfish in the jetty anglers' catch during four of the months sampled (December, June, July and August); more than 1,000 tilapia were caught in December (1,839), June (2,953), and July (2,186). They made up as much as 63% (December) and as little as 5% (February) of the monthly catch. Except for January through April when tilapia catches were consistently low, the tilapia catches by jetty anglers were sporadic.

As for the boat sportfish catch, corvina were the least numerous fish taken by jetty anglers; the 702 corvina sampled represented only 2% of the censused sportfish catch by jetty anglers (Figure 4). Corvina comprised 1% or less of the sportfish catch for 9 of the 12 months sampled. The highest catches were recorded in June (301) and July (332).

Shore Anglers

Shore angler interviews revealed that they creeled 37,723 fish in 37,423 h of fishing for an average annual success rate of 1.01 fish per hour. A total of 18,300 tilapia comprised 49% of the catch (Figure 5). They were the most numerous sportfish in the shore anglers' catch in all but 3 of the 12 months sampled (March, April, and July) and made up 50% or more of the catch in half of the months censused. The lowest tilapia catches occurred from November through April -- this was also evident for jetty catches. The highest tilapia catches occurred from May through September, somewhat similar to jetty angler catches.

 

FIGURE 4. Species composition (percent and numbers) of sportfish caught by jetty anglers each month during Salton Sea creel census -- October 1982 through September 1983.

 

 

 

FIGURE 5. Species composition (percent and numbers) of sportfish caught by shore anglers each month during Salton Sea creel census -- October 1982 through September 1983.

- 20 -

Bairdiella ranked second in the shore anglers' catch, accounting for 11,640, or 31%, of the total catch (Figure 5). Shore anglers caught the most bairdiella from April through August, when 89% of the total annual catch was made; conversely, October through March accounted for only 11%. Similar high and low bairdiella catches were also exhibited in some of the monthly catches by boat and jetty anglers.

The third most numerous fish in the shore anglers' catch was sargo; 7,202 sargo comprised 19% of the total catch (Figure 5). Approximately 52% were caught during June and July. This is contrary to the boat and jetty anglers' peak catches during December through April.

As in the case of boat and jetty anglers, corvina were the least numerous fish creeled by shore anglers, accounting for only 1% (581 fish) of the catch sampled during the year (Figure 5). A total of 86% were caught during June and July, which were the same months when jetty anglers caught the most corvina.

Catch Rates by Angler Category and Species

Boat Anglers

For boat anglers, the catch rate was highest for tilapia, at 0.88 fish per hour over the 12 month period (Figure 6). This success rate was the highest reported by any of the three angler groups for any of the four sportfish caught in the Sea (Figures 6-8). Monthly catch rates for tilapia by boat anglers fluctuated widely; they ranged from a low of 0.08 fish per hour (March) to a high of 2.28 fish per hour (November).

The sargo catch rate was 0.58 per angler hour during the 12 month period (Figure 6). Monthly boat angler success rates ranged from 0.08 fish per hour (July) to 1.08 fish per hour (January), with the greatest success achieved during October through February.

Boat anglers averaged 0.39 bairdiella per hour during the census, with success rates ranging from 0.01 fish per hour (January) to 1.42 fish per hour (June) (Figure 6). Overall, boat anglers had more success catching bairdiella during the late spring and summer than during the winter and early spring.

Corvina were caught at an annual rate of only 0.10 fish per hour (Figure 6). However, boat anglers were more successful than jetty and shore anglers in catching corvina (Fi~gures 6-8). Monthly success rates ranged from 0.001 fish per hour (December) to 0.26 fish per hour (June); boat anglers were most successful during March through September.

Jetty Anglers

Jetty anglers were most successful at catching sargo, with an average catch per angler hour of 0.73 fish for the entire year (Figure 7). Monthly success rates ranged from 0.25 (May) to 1.41 (July). Overall, jetty anglers were more successful in catching sargo than either boat or shore anglers (Figures 6-8). The highest success rates were attained in January-February and June-July (Figure 7).

- 21-

FIGURE 6. Boat angler catch per hour for Salton Sea sportfish during 1982-83 creel census.

 

- 22 -

FIGURE 7. Jetty angler catch per flour tor Salton Sea sportfish during 1982-83 creel census.

&emdash;23&emdash;

 

FIGURE 8. Shore angler catch per hour for Salton Sea sportfish during 1982-83 creel census.

- 24 -

Jetty anglers caught bairdiella at an average annual rate of 0.64 fish per angler hour (Figure 7), which was the highest bairdiella catch rate for any of the three angler categories (Figures 6-8). Jetty angler success rates for bairdiella fluctuated widely, ranging from less than 0.02 fish per hour (November-January) to 1.69 fish per hour (June). The highest monthly catch rates for bairdiella were in March and May through August. Boat anglers had the highest success in the capture of bairdiella during November, May, June, and August.

Tilapia ranked third in jetty angler catch success with an average annual catch rate of 0.54 fish per hour (Figure 7). Catch rates for tilapia varied widely, from 0.08 (February) to 1.72 (June) fish per hour and were highest in December and June through August. Of the three angler types, jetty anglers were least successful in catching tilapia.

Jetty anglers were least successful in catching corvina, averaging only 0.04 corvina per hour for the entire year (Figure 7). This rate of success ranked between that achieved by boat (0.10) and shore (0.01) anglers (Figures 6-8). Success rates varied from no success (December and January) to 0.26 corvina per angler hour (July). The highest catch rates occurred during June through August.

Shore Anglers

Of the four sportfish, tilapia were caught with the highest degree of success by shore anglers, at an annual rate of 0.58 tilapia per angler hour. Monthly rates ranged from 0.08 (April) to 1.31 (June) fish per hour (Figure 8). Success rates were highest in January, and June through September and are similar to jetty angler success rates (Figure 7).

Shore anglers were not as accomplished in catching bairdiella as boat and jetty anglers --they were caught at 0.31 fish per hour (Figure 8). Monthly bairdiella catch rates varied from 0.001 (January) to 1.07 (July) fish per hour. The lowest catch rates were from October through January, which is fairly consistent with the lowest catch rates for boat and jetty anglers. June and July were the months of greatest shore angler success and is similar to the peak months for boat and jetty anglers.

Sargo ranked third in average annual catch rate for shore anglers at 0.18 fish per hour (Figure 8), and was the lowest sargo catch rate for any of the three angler types. Catch rates fluctuated very little for the eight months from October 1982 through May 1983, when rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.16 sargo per hour. Shore angler catch rates were relatively constant compared to rates by boat and jetty anglers. Success rates were highest from June through August, as was the case for jetty anglers (Figures 6 and 7).

Shore anglers were the least successful of the three angler types in catching corvina at only was 0.01 fish per hour (Figure 8). Monthly rates varied from no success (January) to 0.09 corvina per hour in July. As for jetty anglers, the highest shore angler catch rates were in June and July (Figure 7).

- 25-

Use, Catch, Effort, and Success
By Month

Census clerks interviewed 19,053 anglers who fished 70,756 hours and caught 103,301 sportfish for an annual catch rate of 1.46 fish per angler hour (Table 4). sampling was conducted on 190 days, of which 133 were weekdays and 57 were weekends and holidays.

The majority of angling use (53%) and effort (54%) occurred from February through June (Table 4). A total of 45% of the angler use and 46% of the effort occurred during interviews conducted on weekends and holidays. More than half (56%) of the total catch was during June, July, October and November.

T. Mossambica made up 41% of the total catch by all anglers (Table 4). The months of June, July, October, and November were the best fishing months, with 64% of the tilapia caught then. Water temperatures as low as 120C caused a massive tilapia die-off during February and March of 1982 and probably was responsible for the extremely low catches (4%) during those months. Monthly tilapia catch rates ranged from 0.11 fish (March) to 1.16 (June) fish per hour; the annual catch rate was 0.60 fish per hour.

Bairdiella and sargo each made up 28% of the total sportfish catch (Table 4). A total of 80% of the bairdiella were caught during March through July, when bairdiella moved inshore to spawn (Walker 1961). The poorest catches (1%) occurred from November through January, when only 329 fish were censused.

Sargo catches showed no seasonal trend as was the case for bairdiella and tilapia. Highest catches were in February, June, July, and October; 14,841 sargo accounting for 51% of the catch. The fewest sargo were censused during May (852) and August (611) and together made up only 5% of the catch. Compared to the other sportfish, catch rates for sargo were relatively stable, fluctuating from 0.21 (May) to 0.72 (July) fish per angler hour.

The 2,962 corvina caught comprised only 3% of the total (Table 4). The highest catches of corvina occurred from March through July, when 87% were caught. Unusually high winds and rain probably reduced effort and resulted in meager catches in August and September. The high catch rates for these 2 months indicate that if the weather had been better, the effort and catches might have been substantially higher. Catch rates were highest from March through September, peaking in June (0.16) and July (0.17), and ranging from 0.04 to 0.17. The annual rate was 0.04 fish per hour. Black (1974) reported that partyboat anglers at the Sea from 1962-72 had most success from July through October each year. As with bairdiella, the increase in corvina take occurs during inshore spawning movement (CDFG, unpub. data).

 

Catch Composition by Species and Area

Orangemouth Corvina

Monthly corvina catch rates showed no pattern with catch location (Table 5). Area 8 in the southern end of the Sea (Figure 1) had the highest angler success rate for corvina (0.085), while Areas 6 and 7, also in the southern part, had the lowest rates (0.012 and 0.006, respectively). Boat anglers accounted for 97% of the orangemouth corvina sampled at Area 8. In comparison, Area 2, the next best area for angler success in the catch of corvina, had only 36% of the corvina landed by boat anglers. Seventy-four percent of the total censused corvina catch came from Areas 2 and 8 (37% from each area).

TABLE 4. Summary of Salton Sea Angler Use, catch, and Effort by Month frau October 1982 through Septenter 1983.

Months

No.
anglers

No. hrs.
fished

No.
fish

No. fish
per angler hour

No.
ORC 1/

ORC per
angler hr.

No.
TIL2/

TIL per
angler hr.

No.
BAR3/

BAR per
angler hr.

No.
SAR4/

SAR per
Angler Hr.

Oct.

2,218

8286.75

11,492

1.39

81

0.01

5,973

0.81

2,063

0.32

3,375

0.53

Nov.

2,190

7827.25

11,017

1.41

59

0.01

7,754

0.86

261

0.03

2,943

0.43

Dec.

1,082

3717.75

5,124

1.38

8

0.002

3,214

0.86

52

0.02

1,850

0.51

Jan.

1,095

3658.00

4,916

1.34

1

0.0003

2,706

0.91

16

0.01

2,193

0.71

Feb.

1,884

6201.00

6,336

1.02

86

0.02

870

0.15

1,755

0.32

3,625

0.67

Mar.

2,180

7974.75

8,366

1.05

559

0.07

886

0.11

4,012

0.60

2, 909

0.40

Apr.

2,648

10082.75

5,436

0.54

537

0.06

1,559

0.23

1,556

0.15

1,784

0.26

May

1,846

7662.25

9,043

1.18

156

0.04

3,250

0.37

4,785

0.92

852

0.21

June

1,450

6394.00

21,430

3.35

735

0.16

8,368

1.16

8,000

1.38

4,327

0.68

July

1,000

3975.75

13,699

3.45

582

0.17

4,744

1.12

4,859

1.02

3,514

0.72

Aug.

536

1571.75

2,648

1.68

63

0.09

1,025

0.64

949

0.73

611

0.36

Sept.

924

3403.75

3,794

1.11

95

0.06

1,735

0.50

726

0.27

1,238

0.32

Total

19,053

70,756

103,301

1.46

2,962

0.04

42,084

0.60

29,034

0.41

29,221

0.41

1/OCR = orangenouch corvina
2/TIL = tilapia
3/BAR = bairdiella
4/SAR = sargo

- 27-

TABLE 5. 1982-83 Orangemouth Corvina Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 1
Area 2

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

17

2

0.022

2

50

1

0.019

3

November

6

4

0.005

3

10

2

0.003

5

December

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

January

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

February

0

8

0

8

3

2

0.001

2

March

2

5

0.018

3

24

2

0.014

4

April

33

4

0.084

2

145

2

0.041

4

May

4

5

0.027

5

60

1

0.021

6

June

18

5

0.040

7

442

1

0.199

3

July

10

7

0.312

2

309

1

0.476

1

August

0

8

0

8

26

1

0.096

1

September

0

8

0

8

32

1

0.090

2

Totals

90

6

0.027

5

1101

1

0.049

2

TABLE 5. (cont.) 1982-83 Orangemouth Corvina Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 3
Area 4

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

0

8

0

8

3

4

0.017

4

November

0

8

0

8

1

6

0.001

6

December

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

January

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

February

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

March

0

8

0

8

4

4

0.013

5

April

1

6

0.037

5

47

3

0.174

1

May

0

8

0

8

14

4

0.152

2

June

15

6

0.075

6

125

2

0.078

5

July

9

8

0.057

4

182

2

0.259

3

August

0

8

0

8

2

5

0.005

3

September

8

4

0.038

4

31

2

0.024

6

Totals

33

7

0.034

4

409

3

0.039

3

- 28 -

TABLE 5. (cont.) 1982-83 Orangemouth Corvina Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 5
Area 6

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

7

3

0.030

8

1

1

<0.001

1

November

3

2

0.010

1

31

1

0.041

4

December

1

8

0.001

2

0

8

0

8

January

1

1

0.050

1

0

8

0

8

February

0

8

0

8

1

3

<0.001

3

March

5

3

0.030

2

2

5

0.006

6

April

4

5

0.008

6

0

8

0

8

May

0

8

0

8

28

3

0.150

3

June

54

4

0.110

4

2

8

0.020

5

July

22

3

0.039

7

22

3

0.043

5

August

4

4

0.037

3

5

3

0.032

4

September

5

5

0.031

5

1

7

0.007

7

Totals

106

4

0.013

6

93

5

0.012

7

TABLE 5. (cont.) 1982-83 Orangemouth Corvina Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 7
Area 8

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

0

8

0

8

3

4

0.003

5

November

0

8

0

8

8

3

0.004

4

December

0

8

0

8

7

1

0.008

1

January

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

February

0

8

0

8

82

1

0.058

1

March

0

8

0

8

522

1

0.119

1

April

0

8

0

8

307

1

0.072

3

May

3

6

0.040

4

47

2

0.251

1

June

9

7

0.500

1

70

3

0.201

2

July

13

6

0.019

8

15

5

0.037

6

August

1

6

0.007

5

25

2

0.077

2

September

4

6

0.039

3

14

3

0.047

2

Totals

30

8

0.006

8

1100

2

0.085

1

- 29 -

 

Tilapia

The highest annual success rates for tilapia were achieved by anglers who fished in the three most northern areas censused; annual catch rates ranged from 0.710 tilapia per angler hour (Area 2) to 1.097 tilapia per angler hour (Area 1, Table 6). These three areas had the greatest angler success for tilapia in 8 of the 12 months censused. A total of 49% of the annual tilapia catch came from these areas. Area 2 ranked as the best producer of tilapia to the angler's creel in 10 of the 12 months sampled; 38% of the tilapia catch sampled for the year was from this area. Monthly angler success rates for tilapia showed no general trends or patterns within or between geographic areas.

Bairdiella

Areas 3, 2, and 6 were the best areas of angler success for bairdiella, with 0.876, 0.566, and 0.562 fish per hour, respectively (Table 7). The annual catch of bairdiella from the latter two areas contributed 59% of the catch from all eight areas. Anglers in Area 8 were the least successful (0.074), ranking 7th in catch, with only 3% of the total censused bairdiella catch. No discernible patterns were evident from the monthly catches or success rates within or between areas.

Sargo

Sargo were caught in the largest numbers in three of the four most northern areas sampled -- Areas 1, 2, and 4 (Table 8). A total of 66% of the annual sargo catch came from Area 2. Monthly catches from this area showed that it ranked, first in the number of sargo caught during each of the 12 months censused. Jetty and boat anglers caught 62% and 30%, respectively, of the sargo in this area, which may be due to the close proximity of underwater and partly submerged structures (trees, buildings, powerline poles, tire reefs) to jetty and boat angler access. Gill-netting surveys have shown that sargo are more abundant around submerged structures than any of the other sportfish in the Sea (CDFG, unpub. data). Annual angler success rates for sargo in the four northernmost areas ranged from 0.278 (Area 4) to 0.860 (Area 2), whereas rates in Areas S through 8 varied from 0.081 to 0.171.

- 30-

 

TABLE 6. 1982-83 Tilapia Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 1
Area 2

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

780

2

1.525

2

1237

2

0.771

5

November

1104

3

1.235

2

4174

1

1.611

1

December

238

3

1.149

2

595

2

0.742

4

January

500

2

3.607

1

1606

1

1.289

2

February

30

4

0.050

5

674

1

0.392

1

March

6

7

0.021

7

446

1

0.189

2

April

60

5

0.124

5

732

1

0.318

2

May

134

6

0.421

5

840

1

0.347

6

June

586

7

0.788

6

2733

1

1.307

2

July

142

8

2.390

2

1942

1

2.992

1

August

14

6

3.500

1

433

1

0.947

3

September

14

8

0.325

5

514

1

0.265

7

Totals

3608

5

1.097

1

15926

1

0.710

3

TABLE 6. (cont.) 1982-83 Tilapia Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 3
Area 4

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

7

8

0.114

8

89

7

0.134

7

November

3

8

0.750

6

44

7

0.536

7

December

0

8

0

8

231

4

2.110

1

January

0

8

0

8

253

4

0.783

3

February

11

6

0.047

6

47

3

0.054

4

March

0

8

0

8

47

5

0.117

4

April

0

8

0

8

31

6

0.049

7

May

8

8

1.333

1

90

7

0.197

8

June

399

8

2.007

1

1034

2

0.310

8

July

187

6

1.187

4

1298

2

1.847

3

August

52

4

1.733

2

297

2

0.796

4

September

296

3

1.440

1

198

5

0.309

6

Totals

963

8

0.989

2

3659

4

0.352

8

- 31-

TABLE 6. (cont.) 1982-83 Tilapia Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 5
Area 6

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

528

6

0.644

6

1193

3

2.047

1

November

361

4

0.914

4

245

5

0.328

8

December

107

5

0.181

6

50

6

0.314

5

January

10

6

0.016

6

254

3

0.426

4

February

21

5

0.031

7

7

8

0.010

8

March

19

6

0.030

6

112

4

0.043

5

April

76

4

0.111

6

280

3

0.320

1

May

665

3

0.840

2

325

5

0.287

7

June

1005

3

0.988

4

983

4

0.700

7

July

221

5

0.394

7

174

7

0.342

8

August

8

8

0.074

7

11

7

9.969

8

September

21

7

0.131

8

51

6

0.382

4

Totals

3042

6

0.378

7

3685

3

0.466

6

 

TABLE 6. (cont.) 1982-83 Tilapia Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 7
Area 8

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

756

5

1.060

4

1383

1

1.318

3

November

80

6

0.759

5

1743

2

0.921

3

December

2

7

0.035

7

1991

1

1.083

3

January

0

9

0

7

83

5

0.369

5

February

8

7

0.062

3

72

2

0.211

2

March

127

3

0.365

2

129

2

0.460

1

April

29

7

0.184

4

351

2

0.273

3

May

437

4

0.683

3

751

2

0.495

4

June

654

6

0.997

3

974

5

0.985

5

July

349

4

0.510

6

431

3

0.637

5

August

48

5

0.347

6

l62

3

0.461

5

September

249

4

0.636

3

392

2

1.022

2

Totals

2739

7

0.586

5

8462

2

0.651

4

- 32 -

TABLE 7. 1982-83 Bairdiella Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 1
Area 2

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

343

2

0.707

1

983

1

0.325

3

November

36

2

0.070

4

119

1

0.094

3

December

20

1

0.104

2

11

3

0.012

3

January

0

8

0

8

5

2

0.004

4

February

0

8

0

8

667

2

0.271

4

March

48

6

0.386

5

1380

2

0.555

4

April

38

6

0.066

5

662

1

0.242

3

May

156

3

0.497

3

3053

1

1.235

1

June

513

5

0.637

4

3271

1

1.506

3

July

177

7

2.765

1

1752

1

2.699

2

August

16

7

4.000

1

383

1

0.873

2

September

0

8

0

8

400

1

0.163

5

Totals

1347

6

0.410

5

12686

1

0.566

2

TABLE 7. (cont.) 1982-83 Bairdiella Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 3
Area 4

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

6

8

0.097

6

105

6

0.053

8

November

0

8

0

8

35

3

0.358

1

December

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

January

0

8

0

8

4

3

0.019

2

February

137

3

3.186

1

130

4

0.798

3

March

5

8

0.180

6

199

3

0.715

3

April

8

7

0.131

4

528

2

0.321

2

May

90

4

1.151

2

1320

2

0.474

4

June

344

7

1.730

1

1773

2

1.726

2

July

214

6

1.358

4

1174

2

1.671

3

August

24

5

0.800

4

304

2

0.815

3

September

25

6

0.121

6

51

4

0.192

3

Totals

853

8

0.876

1

5623

2

0.541

3

- 33 -

TABLE 7. (cont.) 1982-83 Bairdiella Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 5
Area 6

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

110

5

0.382

2

306

3

0.250

4

November

23

5

0.105

2

20

6

0.023

5

December

12

2

0.283

1

0

8

0

8

January

1

4

0.050

1

6

1

0.009

3

February

18

6

0.067

6

776

1

0.868

2

March

74

4

0.073

7

2219

1

1.817

1

April

191

3

0.602

1

65

4

0.050

6

May

61

5

0.035

6

18

8

0.012

8

June

740

3

0.575

5

686

4

0.350

8

July

506

4

0.092

8

291

5

0.572

6

August

7

8

0.064

8

23

6

0.147

7

September

7

7

0.043

7

35

5

0.262

2

Totals

1750

4

0.217

5

4445

3

0.562

2

TABLE 7. (cont). 1982-83 Bairdiella Catch and Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 7
Area 8

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

24

7

0.063

7

186

4

0.183

5

November

0

8

0

8

28

4

0.014

6

December

0

8

0

8

9

4

0.011

4

January

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

February

24

5

0.197

5

3

7

0.002

7

March

52

5

0.880

2

35

7

0.006

8

April

8

7

0.011

8

56

5

0.016

7

May

31

7

0.030

7

56

6

0.054

5

June

451

6

0.390

6

222

8

0.385

7

July

583

3

0.853

5

162

8

0.169

7

August

64

4

0.462

5

128

3

0.390

6

September

136

2

0.853

1

72

3

0.182

4

Totals

1373

5

0.294

4

957

7

0.074

7

- 34 -

TABLE 8. 1982-83 Sargo Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 1
Area 2

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

404

3

0.799

1

1782

1

0.600

2

November

332

3

0.532

4

1557

1

0.586

3

December

257

2

1.189

1

1363

1

0.859

2

January

121

2

0.843

2

1943

1

0.091

1

February

318

2

0.762

2

2985

1

1.173

1

March

148

2

0.549

3

2610

1

1.207

2

April

250

2

0.516

2

1334

1

0.514

3

May

84

2

0.508

1

622

1

0.236

3

June

436

3

0.845

2

2033

1

0.729

3

July

149

4

2.328

2

1754

1

2.702

1

August

3

6

0.750

1

300

1

0.643

3

September

0

8

0

8

995

1

0.364

1

Totals

2502

3

0.761

2

19278

1

0.860

1

 

TABLE 8. (cont.) 1982-83 Sargo Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 3
Area 4

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

6

8

0.097

7

93

6

0.047

8

November

11

8

2.750

1

109

6

1.295

2

December

0

8

0

8

31

4

0.287

4

January

2

6

0.084

6

84

3

0.498

3

February

37

7

0.538

3

65

4

0.379

4

March

19

5

1.268

1

85

3

0.412

4

April

16

6

0.571

1

79

3

0.958

6

May

4

8

0.347

2

32

5

0.011

6

June

311

4

1.564

1

890

2

0.266

5

July

199

3

1.263

4

1128

2

1.605

3

August

15

4

0.500

4

266

2

0.713

2

September

21

5

0.103

5

31

4

0.252

3

Totals

641

8

0.658

3

2893

2

0.278

4

- 35 -

TABLE 8. (cont.) 1982-83 Sargo Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 5
Area 6

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

88

7

0.214

6

323

4

0.431

5

November

84

7

0.176

8

266

4

0.347

6

December

27

6

0.063

6

4

7

0.025

7

January

4

5

0.151

4

2

6

0.003

7

February

49

6

0.218

6

56

5

0.230

5

March

19

5

0.020

6

21

4

0.016

7

April

64

4

0.099

5

17

5

0.103

4

May

40

4

0.022

5

16

6

0.011

6

June

220

5

0.171

6

184

6

0.094

8

July

52

7

0.092

7

38

8

0.074

8

August

1

7

0.009

7

1

7

0.006

8

September

5

6

0.031

6

2

7

0.014

7

Totals

653

7

0.081

8

930

5

0.117

6

TABLE 8. (cont.) 1982-83 Sargo Catch Rates by Month and Area -- All Angler Categories

Area 7
Area 8

Month

Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank
Sampled
catch
Rank
Catch/hr
Rank

October

265

5

0.557

3

414

2

0.519

4

November

114

5

0.403

5

470

2

0.248

7

December

30

5

0.755

3

138

3

0.149

5

January

0

8

0

8

37

4

0.101

5

February

27

8

0.218

6

88

3

0.059

8

March

4

7

0.053

5

3

8

<0.001

8

April

3

8

0.004

7

16

6

0.004

7

May

8

7

0.007

8

46

3

0.039

4

June

111

8

0.096

7

142

7

0.274

4

July

104

5

0.152

5

90

6

0.117

6

August

5

5

0.036

6

20

3

0.059

5

September

126

2

0.360

2

58

3

0.126

4

Totals

797

6

0.171

5

1522

4

0.117

6

 

- 36 -

Sportfish Lengths and Weights

Orangemouth Corvina

The 2,951 corvina measured during the 12 month census ranged from 15 cm to 108 cm TL, with a mean of 59 cm (Figure 9). Since fish were not weighed, a length-weight relationship was established from 1,634 gill-net caught fish sampled during 1979-82 and used to estimate the weight of corvina caught in this study (CDFG, unpub. data). Corvina weight in the anglers' creel probably ranged from 0.035 to 12.0 kg, averaging about 2.0 kg. More than half (55%) of the corvina were in the 45 cm to 60 cm TL range. A total of 29% were less than 50 cm TL, which is the approximate length at which full recruitment to the sportfishery occurs (Figure 9). Unpublished CDFG information from 1979-81 shows that approximately 83% of the males are mature at 50 cm TL, while only 49% of the females at this size are mature.

The mean length of sport-caught corvina averaged 41 cm TL in October 1982 and increased to 75 cm TL by August of the following year (Figure 10). Corvina caught during the months of July and August averaged 20 cm larger than those caught in June, which could be due to the movement of spawning fish closer to shore where they are more vulnerable to all angler types. Unpublished CDFG data indicate that corvina of this size spawn during July and August.

Tilapia

The 33,850 tilapia measured during the creel census averaged 27 cm TL; tilapia from 6 to 45 cm TL were kept by anglers (Figure 11). A length-weight relationship was determined from 1,594 tilapia sampled in gill nets from 1979-82 and was used to approximate the range and mean weight of tilapia sampled during the creel census. (CDFG, unpub. data). Tilapia weights in the anglers' catch probably ranged from 0.005 kg, to 1.58 kg, averaging 0.375 kg. Two distinct length modes are apparent; a small mode at 13 cm TL and a large mode at 33 cm TL (Figure 11). A total of 69% of the anglers catch was between 24.0 and 37.9 cm TL. Tilapia may not be fully recruited into the sportfishery until they are larger than 24 cm TL (Figure 11). Approximately 28% of the sport anglers catch was 24 cm TL or less. Unpublished CDFG information shows that 42% of the male and 52% of the female tilapia have spawned by the time they reach 24 cm TL. Tilapia average size was as low as 15 cm TL during September 1983 and as high as 32 cm TL during February of the same year (Figure 10). With the exception of September, the average size of sport&emdash;caught tilapia was greater than 20 cm during the remainder of the year.

 

- 37 -

FIGURE 9. Number of corvina measured at each centimeter during 1982-83 Salton Sea creel census

- 38 -

 

FIGURE 10. Mean length of Salton Sea sportfish measured during 1982-83 creel census.

- 39 -

 

 

FIGURE 11. Number of tilapia measured at each centimeter during 1982-83 Salton Sea creel census.

- 40 -

Bairdiella

Creel census clerks measured 28,939 bairdiella from the anglers' catch during 1982-83; these fish ranged in size from 6 cm to 41 cm TL, with an average size of 24 cm TL (Figure 12). A length-weight relationship was determined from 2,265 bairdiella caught in gill nets during 1979-82 (CDFG, unpub. data) and used to estimate weights for angler-caught bairdiella during 1982-83. Weights ranged from 0.003 to 0.760 kg, averaging 0.160 kg. The number of bairdiella caught at each centimeter showed two modes a small mode at 9 cm and a large mode at 22 cm TL (Figure 12). Slightly more than three-quarters (77%) ranged from 19.0 to 27.9 cm TL. Bairdiella are fully recruited into the sportfishery at approximately 19 cm TL; only 7% of the total catch was less than this size. A total of 78% of the males and 28% of the females have spawned by the time they reach 19 cm (CDFG, unpub. data).

From October 1982 to August 1983, bairdiella average size fluctuated only between 22.0 and 25.9 cm TL (Figure 10), and decreased to 19 cm during September 1983.

Sargo

A total of 28,343 sargo was measured from the sport angler's catch during 1982-83, ranging from 5 to 35 cm FL, averaging 23 cm FL. A length-weight relationship from 1,519 sargo sampled in gill nets during 1979-82 (CDFG, unpub. data) was used to estimate weights of sargo caught during the creel census. Sargo probably ranged from 0.002 kg, to 1.01 kg, averaging 0.280 kg. A total of 82% ranged in size from 20.0 to 27.9 cm FL. Sargo are not fully recruited into the sportfishery until they have achieved a size of 20 cm FL, as only 8% of the sargo measured were smaller (Figure 13). Unpublished 1979-81 CDFG information show that 34% of the males and 17% of the females less than 20 cm are capable of spawning. Unlike the other three species of sportfish, only one length mode (23 cm FL) was apparent for sargo (Figure 13), which was the same as the mean. Average monthly lengths showed little fluctuation (2 cm) from December 1982 to July 1983. As for the other three species, the smallest sargo (17 cm) were caught during the month of September (Figure 10). It is unknown why this occurred for all four species during the same month of the year.

Angling Quality Relative to Other California Sportfisheries

Since the Salton Sea sportfishery is unique, it is difficult to compare it with other California fisheries. The annual catch-per-angler hour for all four Salton Sea species combined was 1.46. Boat, jetty, and shore anglers averaged 1.95, 1.98, and 1.01 fish per hour, respectively.

For California warmwater reservoirs, Hayden (1966) reported a catch-per-angler hour of 1.22 for 6 species of fish at Lake Isabella during 1964-65, while Hashagen (1973) calculated 0.58 for 14 fish species at Merle Collins Reservoir during 1966. In three San Diego County reservoirs, angler success rates were 0.92 for San Vicente in 1957 (Bell 1959), 1.50 for El Capitan in 1962 (Fast 1966), and 0.87 for Sutherland in 1960 (La Faunce, Kimsey, and Chadwick 1964). These three reservoirs are intensively managed and are occasionally stocked, whereas the Salton Sea sportfishery has been totally self&emdash;sustaining since 1956 with little management other than low level monitoring.

- 41-

 

FIGURE 12. Number of bairdiella measured at each centimeter during 1982-83 Salton Sea creel census.

- 42 -

 

FIGURE 13. Number of sargo measured at each centimeter during 1982-83 Salton Sea creel census.

 - 43 -

Numerous articles have been written on various aspects of marine recreational fisheries off the California coast. In 1963, southern California pier and jetty anglers caught 0.36 fish per hour for 49 species (Pinkas, Thomas, and Hanson 1967). In 1965-66 shore anglers in southern California caught 0.30 fish per hour for 43 species (Pinkas, Oliphant, Haugen 1968) and surf anglers in Monterey Bay caught 0.71 fish per hour in 1979 (Spratt 1982). Pinkas et al (1968) and several reports by Wine (1978, 1979a, 1979b, 1982) estimated that private boat angler success rates ranged from 0.31 (1964) to 0.46 (1975-76) fish per hour for between 68 and 193 marine species caught off southern California.

 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

This report presents information from interviews of 19,053 anglers who fished the Salton Sea from October 1, 1982 through September 30, 1983. The data reveal that angler use from the six surrounding counties has not changed significantly since 1966-69. The largest change in angler origin was an increase from California counties more distant than the six closest counties. Despite the opening of four major new fishing reservoirs (Perris, Silverwood, Castaic, and Pyramid) in southern California since 1970, anglers are still driving considerable distances to fish at the Salton Sea. Los Angeles County was the origin of 37% of the anglers censused.

Boat, jetty, and shore angler use was greatest during the fall, late winter, and early spring, which reflected the most desirable climatic conditions rather than angling quality. Boat, jetty, and shore angler's completed fishing trips averaged 4.4, 5.0, and 4.2 hours, respectively.

Tilapia (Mozambique mouthbrooder) made up the largest percentage of the four species caught by boat (45%) and shore(49%) anglers, but ranked only third in the total c.atch by jetty anglers (29%). Catch rates for this fish averaged 0.88 per hour for boat anglers, 0.58 for shore anglers, and 0.54 for jetty anglers. Tilapia comprised 41% of the total sportfish catch by all angler groups with an annual catch rate of 0.60 fish per hour. A total of 64% of the total tilapia catch occurred from June through November. For unknown reasons, most tilapia were caught and with highest success in the three northernmost areas. Tilapia average size was 27 cm TL, weighing an estimated 0.375 kg. Tilapia are fully recruited into the sportfishery at 24 cm TL, and approximately 25% were less than 24 cm. Less than one-half (42%)of the males and slightly more than one-half (52%) of the females were sexually mature, which may have positive effects because fishing mortality may remove enough of the population such that stunting is avoided (Gwahaba 1973).

- 44 -

Bairdiella, once considered to be the most numerous of the original three sportfish (Walker 1961), ranked second in the total sportfish catch by jetty and shore anglers and third by boat anglers, contributing to 32%, 31%, and 20% of the catch, respectively. Jetty, shore, and boat anglers creeled bairdiella at 0.64, 0.31, and 0.39 fish per hour, respectively. Bairdiella comprised 28% of the total sportfish catch by all three angler groups combined. The annual catch rate was 0.41 fish per angling hour, with 80% of the catch occurring from March through July, which coincides with inshore spawning movement. Three sampling areas (3, 2, and 6) contributed to 59% of the angler's take; reasons for this are not known. Bairdiella averaged 24 cm TL during the census, weighing an estimated 0.160 kg. Full recruitment into the sportfishery occurs at 19 cm TL. Since only 7% of the total catch measured less than this, the possibility that only one out of four female bairdiella (28%) were sexually mature would probably have no significant effect on the population.

Sargo were the most numerous of the four sportfish caught by jetty fishermen, contributing 37%. Sargo was second in the boat angler's catch and third in the shore angler's catch, comprising 29% and 19%, respectively. Success rates for sargo averaged 0.73, 0.58, and 0.18 fish per angler hour for jetty, boat and shore fishermen, respectively. Sargo comprised 28% of the total sportfish catch and the 0.41 catch rate was identical to that found for bairdiella. Monthly sargo catches showed no seasonal trends; however, 51% were caught during February, June, July, and October. Sargo were predominantly caught in areas of partly or completely submerged structures (e.g. trees, buildings, powerline poles, tire reefs, etc.) and 66% came from Area 2, which is in close proximity to these submerged items. Average size was 23 cm FL and the estimated average weight was approximately 0.280 kg. Sargo are fully recruited into the sportfishery at 20 cm FL. Sargo less than 20 cm FL made up only 8% of the catch. Only 34% of the males and 17% of the females spawn at this size. Removal of sexually immature sargo probably does not have a detrimental effect on the sportfishery because of the small percentage represented in the sportcatch.

The least numerous fish in the boat, jetty, and shore angler's creel was the orangemouth corvina, accounting for 6%, 2%, and 1% of their total catch, respectively. Annual success rates averaged 0.10 for boat anglers, 0.04 for jetty anglers, and 0.01 for shore anglers. Corvina accounted for only 3% of the overall catch and were caught at an average of 0.04 fish per hour. These low values are similar to those collected for other large predator fish such as largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, at San Vicente Reservoir during l956-57 and El Capitan Reservoir in 1960-62.

- 45 -  

The highest corvina catches were during March through July, when 87% were caught. Inclement weather reduced the catches during August and September, but success rates were high. Corvina catches improve as these fish move inshore for spawning. Monthly catch rates for corvina showed no discernible pattern when analyzed by catch locations. The highest angler success rates came from Area 8 (0.085), where 97% of the fish censused were caught by boat anglers. Corvina averaged 59 cm TL and weighed an estimated 2.0 kg. Full recruitment of corvina to the sportfishery occurs at 50 cm TL; 29% of the corvina measured were less than 50 cm TL. About 83% of the males and about half of the females are capable of spawning at this length, indicating a possible corvina removal problem before sexual maturity is attained.

The existing Salton Sea sportfishery is one of California's highest quality fisheries in terms of catch per hour. The loss of this self-sustaining sportfishery, due to an increase in salinity and resultant mortality of sportfish eggs and larvae has been predicted for many years. Methods for salinity and water elevation control have been previously proposed (Pomeroy et al. 1965; U.S.D.I. and Calif. Res. Agency 1969 and 1974). The fishery exists today only because of higher than average freshwater inflows to the Sea during the past 15 years from increased precipitation and agricultural use of excess Colorado River water (Black 1983a, 1983b). These conditions may soon change if water is diverted from entering the Sea by energy developers and an inter-basin water transfer made possible by water conservation measures in the Imperial Valley (Black 1983a, 1983b). The California Fish and Game Commission recogni~ed the value of this sportfishery when it adopted a policy in 1982 which urged that a program be designed to stabilize salinity and water elevation at levels which would sustain this recreational and natural resource, while recognizing the needs of agriculture and energy development. Without the design and implementation of such a venture, the demise of the Sea's sportfishery is inevitable.

- 46 -

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 

I. The creel census survey has established that the Salton Sea sportfishery (1982-83) is of exceptionally high quality. However, the survey was not designed to generate estimates of total angler use or harvest. Proposed geothermal development and water conservation measures in and surrounding the Salton Sea may have serious adverse impacts on the sport fishes and ultimately their use and harvest by sport anglers. It is necessary, through the initiation of a multi-year intensive creel census, to establish and document the amount of angler use this fishery sustainsand the numbers of fish harvested. This information provides to government entities (county, state, and federal) and project developers an accurate assessment of the sportfishery values and the necessity to mitigate adverse impacts to it. At present, these values are viewed to be "insignificant" by most government entities and project developers. 

II. The size at which corvina are fully recruited into the sportfishery and data from unpublished department records on the size at which corvina attain sexual maturity suggests that there may be a significant portion of the population being removed before it has the opportunity to spawn. Therefore, I recommend that a program be initiated to assess whether harvest rates of immature fish are too high. If so, a minimum size limit to insure an adequate spawning population may be needed.

III. Most sargo were caught in areas having submerged structures. I recommend that submerged concrete reefs be constructed to which sargo will be attracted and thus made more harvestible to shore and jetty anglers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank the following seasonal employees who spent many long hours conducting angler interviews and collecting the information upon which this report is based: Sara Molina, Ken Peterson, Laura Molina, and Karen Ram. My thanks also go to seasonal employees Molly Foreman, Gwen Lattin, Dee Mendoza, and Kathy Plant for their diligence in editing the completed creel census interview forms.

Special thanks go to Rich Dixon of Planning Branch for his assistance in having the data collated and to Keith Anderson, Jim St. Amant, and Ken Hashagen for their editorial review of the manuscript.

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REFERENCES

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Barlow, G.W. 1958. Daily movements of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, in shore pools of the Salton Sea, California. Ecology, 39(3):580-87. 

Barrett, P.J. 1983. Systematics of fishes of the genus Tilapia (Perciformes:Cichlidae) in the lower Colorado River Basin. Tempe, Arizona. ArizonaState University; 1983. 59p. Thesis. 

Bell, R.R. 1959. The fishery of San Vicente Reservoir, San Diego County, California. Calif. Dep. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep. 59-12. 62 p. 

Black, G.F. 1974. The partyboat fishery of the Salton Sea and the apparent effect of temperature and salinity on the catch of orangemouth corvina, Cyprinodon xanthulus. Calif. Dep. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep7. 74-5. l4 p.

__________ 1980. Status of the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, (Baird and Girard), in California. Calif. Dep. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Endang. Species Program, Spec. Publ. 80-1. 42 p.

1983a. In Proceedings Aquatic Resources Management of the Colorado River System, November 14-16, 1981, Symposium. Las Vegas, Nevada. Ann Arbor Science, Woburn MA. Chapter 22; pgs 363-382.

__________ 1983b. The Salton Sea and the push for energy -- exploitation of a unique ecosystem. Cal-Neva Wildlife. Anna Mtg. West. Sect. Wildlife Society; Anaheim, Calif. January 14-15, 1983. 14 p.

Calif. Fish Game Comm. & Calif. Dept. Fish Game. 1980. At the crossroads. A report on the status of California's endangered and rare fish and wildlife. p. 37-38.

Coleman, G.A. 1929. A biologial survey of the Salton Sea. Calif. Fish Game, 15(3):218-227 

Dill, W.A., and C. woodhull. 1942. A game fish for the Salton Sea, the ten-pounder, Elops affinis. Calif. Fish Game, 28(4) :171-174.

Evermann, B.W. 1916. Fishes of the Salton Sea. Copeia, 34:61-63.

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Fast, A.W. 1966. Fisheries management of El Capitan Reservoir, San Diego County, California, 1960-1962. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep. 66-5. 29 p.

Gwahaba, J.J. 1973. Effects of fishing on the Tilapia nilotica (Linne 1757) population in Lake George, Uganda over the past 20 years. East Afr. Wild. J. 11:317-328. 

Hashagen, K.A., Jr. 1973. Population structure changes and yields of fishes durin4 the initial eight years of impoundment of a warmwater reservoir. Calif. Fish Game 59(4) :221-244.

Hayden, R.P. 1966. Estimated angler use and harvest, Isabella Reservoir, Kern County, California. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep. 66-7. 11 p. 

Hely, A.G., G.H. Hughes, and B. Irelan. 1966. Hydrologic regimen of Salton Sea, California. U.S. Geological Survey, Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 486-C. 32 p. 

Hoover, F.G. and J.A. St. Amant. 1970. Establishment of Tilapia mossambica Peters in Bard Valley, Imperial County, California. Calif. Fish Game, 56(l):70-71.

Hulquist, R.G. 1981. A summary of Salton Sea creel censuses, 1958, 1963 through 1967, and 1968. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Region 5 Infor. Bull. 0004-3-1981. 46 p. 

La Faunce, D.A., J.B. Kinsey, and H.K. Chadwick. 1964. The fishery at Sutherland Reservoir, San Diego County, California. Calif. Fish Game, 50(4):271-291.

Matsui, M. 1981. The effects of introduced teleost species on social behavior of Cyprinodon macularius californiensis. Glendale, Calif. O~enta~College; 1981. 61 p. Thesis. 

Miller, R.R. 1943. The status of Cyprinodon macularius and Cyprinodon nevadensis, two desert fis es of western North America. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. 0cc. Paper, 473. 25 p. 

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press. 405 p.

Pelzman, R.J. 1973. A review of the life history of Tilipia zillii with a reassessment of its desirability in California. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep. 74-1:9 p.

Pinkas, L., J.C. Thomas, and J.A. Hanson. 1967. Marine sportfishing survey of southern California piers and jetties, 1963. Calif. Fish Game, 53(2):88-104.

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Pinkas, M.C. Oliphant, and C.W. Haugen. 1968. Southern California marine sportfishing survey: private boats, 1964; shoreline, 1965-66. Calif. Fish Game, Fish Bull. 143. 42 p.

Pomeroy, R.D., and H. Cruse. 1965. A reconnaissance study and preliminary report on a water quality control plan for Salton Sea. Prep. for Calif. State Water Res. Control Bd. by Pomeroy, Johnston and Bailey, Engineers, Pasadena, Calif. 190 p.

Schoenherr, A.A. 1979. Niche separation within a population of freshwater fishes in an irrigation drain near the Salton Sea, California. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 78(l):46-55.

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St. Amant, J.A. 1966. Addition of Tilipia mossambica Peters to the California fauna. Calif. Fish and Game.52(1):54-55.

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U.S. Dep. Int., and Resources Agency of California. 1969. Salton Sea project California, federal-state reconnaissance report. 160 p. 

__________ 1974. Salton Sea project Califorrnia, draft environmental statement. 113 p. 

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Wine, V. 1978. Southern California independent sport fishing survey, annual report no. 2, Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Mar. Res. Admin. Rep. 78-2. 79 p.

__________ 1979a. Southern California independent sport fishing survey, annual report no. 3. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Mar. Res. Admin. Rep. 79-3. 100 p. 

__________ 1979b. Southern California marine sport fishing: private-boat catch and effort, 1975-1976. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Mar. Res. Admin. Rep. 79-11. 60 p.

__________ 1982. Southern California marine sport fishing: private-boat catch and effort during 1981. Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Mar. Res. Admin. Rep. 82-7. 76 p.


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