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Bibliography on Invertebrates of the Salton Sea

Arnal, R.E. 1958. Rhizopoda from the Salton Sea, California. Contributions Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research 9:(2): 36-45.
ABSTRACT. The rhizopodal fauna of teh Salton Sea contains tweny foraminiferal species, four of which are new, and three species of Thecamoebina. All species are illustrated and the new ones are named and described.

Arnal, R.E. 1961. Limnology, sedimentation, and microorganisms of the Salton Sea, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 72: 427-478.
ABSTRACT : The Salton Sea, originally a fresh-water lake formed by the flood of the Colorado River in 1905, is located in the center of the Colorado Desert of California. By 1929, the water of the lake had become almost as saline as ocean water because of intense evaporation and solution of salts present on the floor of the basin before the flood. In recent years, in spite of the high rate of evaporation, excessive runoff from irrigation water has maintained and even raised the level of the lake.
Evaluation of the water budget has made it possible to anticipate future changes in the chemical composition of the water- i.e., and increase in the amount of sulfates is predicted for the future. Measurements with a current cross and studies of salinity distribution indicate a counter-clockwise current pattern in the Salton Sea.
Sands, silts, and clays are deposited in that order from the shore line to the center of the lake. The water content, amount of calcium carbonate, and textural characteristics indicate that most of the sediments of the Salton Sea were derived from the suspended load of the Colorado River, whereas the mineralogical study suggests that some of the sediments have a local origin. Two entirely different methods of computing the rate of sedimentation and of calculation the amount of calcium carbonate in the sediments give results of the same order of magnitude. The large amount of calcium carbonate is partly due to precipitation and partly to transportation by Colorado River water.
Foraminifera are the most abundant microorganism in the lake. Several ecological factors influence their distribution; among these factors, chlorinity and temperature are not important, depth may be important by its effect on other factors, but the variation in the pH of the sediments is significant. The living foraminiferal assemblage is due to accidental introduction, but the natural effect of environmental conditions has resulted in the creation of a dwarf fauna and many malformed individuals. In contrast to conditions in the ocean, abundance of species decreases offshore; however, as in the ocean, the number of living Foraminifera increases greatly after a bloom of phytoplankton. The average productivity of the Salton Sea is greater than that of the oceans.
Conclusions derived from this study were applied to sediments deposited in the same basin during the past and made it possible to suggest a late Pliocene and a Pleistocene age for the Brawley formation.

Barnard, J.L. and W.S. Gray, 1968. Introduction of an amphipod crustacean into the Salton Sea, California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 67:219-232.
NOTES: No amphipods were seen in 1955, but were observed in 1962. Gammarus mucronatus was probably introduced in 1957 along with marine grass Diplanthera from Texas. Paper includes illustrations of male and female appendages.

Barnard, J.L. and W. S. Gray, 1969. Biogeographic relationships of the Salton Sea amphipod, Gammarus mucronatus Say. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences.. 68:1-9.
NOTES: Discusses the relationship between fresh, brackish, marine and inland saline species of gammarids, and concludes that Gammarus mucronatus has a stronger relationship to Europoean fluviogammaruses.

Carpelan, L.H.1961. Zooplankton. Pp. 49-61 in: The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sportfishery, B.W. Walker, ed. California Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 113.
NOTES: Describes changes in zooplankton density from Aug. 1954 through July 1956 especially for the rotifer Bracachionus plicatilis, the pile worm Neanthes succinea, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and the copepod Cyclops dimorphus.[=Apocyclops dengizicus]

Carpelan, L.H. and R.H. Linsley. 1961. The pile worm, Neanthes succinea Frey and Leukart. Pp. 63-76 in: The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sportfishery, B.W. Walker, ed. California Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 113.
NOTES: Describes general life history and density of this species at the Salton Sea.

Dexter, D.M. 1993. Salinity tolerance of the copepod Apocyclops dengizicus (Lepeschkin, 1900), a key food chain organism in the Salton Sea, California. Hydrobiologia. 267:203-209.
ABSTRACT : The copepod Apocyclops dengizicus is a key item in the food chain of the Salton Sea where the salinity is currently 45 g/L. The salinity of the Salton Sea may reach 90 g/Lwithin the next 20 years. This study examined the salinity tolerance of this copepod. Large copepodite and adult A. dengizicus were introduced into various salinities with and without acclimation. The 96 h- LC50 without acclimation was 101 /L. Mortality (at 96 h) without acclimation was low at salinities of 90 g/L or less.
Copepod cultures were maintained, with successful reproduction of at least one new generation, at salinities of from 0.5 to 68 g/L for at least 120 days. Copepods maintained at higher salinities, up to 79 /L, remained alive up to 90 days, but a new generation was not produced. In laboratory studies of larval production and survivorship, few nauplii were released at salinities of 68 g/L or higher, and none survived to the copepodite stage.

Dexter, D.M. 1995. Salinity tolerance of Cletocamptus deitersi (Richard 1897) and its presence in the Salton Sea. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 94:169-171.
NOTES: This cosmopolitan species (present on 4 continents) was cultured in Salton Sea water adjusted to various salinties for 120 days. Successful reproduction occured in cultures from 0.5 to 80 g/L, but few individuals survived at higher salinities.

Fialkowski, W. And W.A. Newman. 1998. A pilot study of heavy metal accumulations in a barnacle from the Salton Sea, southern California. Marine Pollution Bulletin (in press).
ABSTRACT: Accumulations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg and Pb in body tissues and egg masses of Balanus amphitrite were measured with an inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Barnacles proved to be a good choice as a sentinel species for monitoring of heavy metals. A comparison of their levels in the animals inhabiting the Salton Sea with those from coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean showed that the Sea, contrary to expectations, has not been severely contaminated by heavy metals. The accumulations of the metals in barnacle bodies and eggs varied markedly between the stations but appeared least where organic pollution was highest.

Flowerdew, M.W. 1985. Indices of genetic identity and distance in three taxa within the Balanus amphitrite Darwin complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Crustacea 49: 7-15.
NOTES: This study used electrophoresis on allozymes. Nei's genetic identiy index based on 11 loci shows no significant genetic differentiation of Balanus amphitrite saltonensis from B.a. amphitrite populations sampled over a wide geographic range.

Hanson, J.A. 1972. Tolerance of high salinity by the pileworm, Neanthes succinea, from the Salton Sea, California. California Fish and Game 58: 152-154.
NOTES: Pileworms tolerated salinities up go 67.5 o/oo for 96 hours.

Johnson, M.W. 1953. The copepodCyclops dimorphus from the Salton Sea. American Midland Naturalist 49: 1988-192.
NOTES: This paper provides line drawings of adult male and female and nauplii Cyclops dimorphus.

Kuhl, D.I. and L. C. Oglesby, 1979. Reproduction and survival of the pileworm Neanthes succinea in higher Salton Sea salinities. Biological Bulletin 157:153-165.
SUMMARY: The polychaete annelid Nereis (Neanthes) succinea is the major benthic detritivore in the Salton Sea, an inland salt lake in southeastern California, and is critical in the trophic chain leading to the sportfishery. In view of the increasing salinity of the Salton Sea, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine critical upper salinity limits for reproduction and survival of pileworms. Atokous (mature) pileworms can survive for extended periods in Salton Sea salinities at least as high as 65 ‰, with some reduction of survival in 70 ‰, and with only short term survial in 80 ‰, more than twice the present salinity of the Salton Sea (36 ‰ ). Heteronereid production is depressed by salinities higher than 50 ‰. Reproduction of N. succinea is successful at salinities at least as high as 45 ‰, and probably as high as 50 ‰. Fertilization and early cleavage stages are less tolerance of elevated salinities than are later development stages such as trochophores.

Linsley, R.H. and L.H. Carpelan. 1961. Invertebrate fauna. Pp.43-48 in: The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sportfishery, B.W. Walker (ed.). California Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 113.
NOTES: Lists 6 invertebrate phyla (Protozoa,Rotifera, Bryozoa, Nematoda, Annelida, and Arthropoda) present in the Salton Sea identifying to genus 7 invertebrate species: Brachionus plicatilus, Nolella blakei, Victoriella pavida, Spilophorella, Neanthes succinea, Cyclops dimorphys, and Balanus amphitrite.

Mearns, A.J. and D.J. Reish, 1969. A comparison of the free amino acids in two populations of the polychaetous annelid Neanthes succinea. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 68:43-53.
NOTES: This paper compared specimens from Los Alimitos with a population at Desert Shores Marina in the Salton Sea. The Salton Sea individuals were smaller in size and redder in color.

Oglesby, L.C. 1977. A newly introduced, brackish-water snail in the Salton Sea Basin, California. California Fish and Game 63: 180-182.
NOTES:The introduced species of snail, Thiara granifera, a mesogastrod, native to Hawaii was first found in Whitefield Creek (in the headquarters area of the Salton Sea State Recreation Area) in 1974. This euryhaline snail lives in salinties up to 10 ‰ and feeds on microscopic algae and detritus.

Raimondi, P.T. 1992. Adult plasticity and rapid larval evolution in a recently isolated barnacle population. Biological Bulletin 182:210-220.
ABSTRACT: Balanus amphitrite, a common barnacle species, was introduced into the landlocked Salton Sea in 1943 or 1944. In 1949, Balanus amphitrite from the Salton Sea was classified as the subspecies, Balanus amphitrite saltonensis, based upon morphological differences between Salton Sea and coastal individuals. This classification was maintained following an investigation of Balanus amphitrite complex in 1975. Such a designation implies that the morphological divergence is underlain by genetic differences. Using field and laboratory transplantations, I tested the alternative hypothesis that the observed morphological divergence in the adult stage of Balanus amphitrite was the result of phenotypic plasticity. The results show that the divergence was due to an evolutionary procebably selection. These results also provide the basis for two slightly precautionary conclusions: (1) the observation that individuals living in typical and novel habitats differ cannot even weakly indicate a cause for the difference and (2) a consideration of the divergence of populations is incomplete if all of the life history stages of the organism are not studied.

Rogers, F.L. 1949. Three new subspeices of Balanus amphitrite from California. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. 41: 23-32.
NOTES: Describes Balanus amphitrite saltonensis which has a short cylindrical form with the orifice nearly as large or larger than the basis.

Segers, H., 1995. Nomenclatural consequences of some recent studies on Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera, Brachionidae). Hydrobiologia 313-314:121-122.

Sixtus, .M.E. 1978. Aspects of the physiology and biogeochemistry of thermal adaptation in two populations of barnacles (Balanus amphitrite Darwin). Masters thesis, San Diego State College, San Diego, California. 78 pp.
ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature adaptation on the metabolism of two populations of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin, from the Salton Sea and the San Diego Bay, were studied. Immediate compensation, adaptation, and selection effects were established, based on standard metabolic rate determinations and Starch Gel Electrophoresis and selected enzyme groups.
There were four major conclusions reached as a result of this study. First, the Salton Sea population of Balanus amphitrite has shown a change in adaptive capacity to short-term temperature changes, relative to the San Diego Bay population. This is probably due to the lack of tidal exposure for the Salton sea population. Second, the Salton Sea barnacles showed a pronounced shift in Oxygen Consumption -Weight relationships when acclimated to 15
°C. This was evidenced by the changes in the log VO2/Log Weight slopes relative to the Control slopes, the ADH, MDH, and alpha-DPDH allele frequencies, and the results from relative esterase inhibition. Third, there was a definite decrease in overall level of heterogeneity, and specific decreases in the levels of polymorphism at the ADH and MDH loci in the Salton sea population relative to the San Diego Bay population. Because of their relationships to differences in tidal fluctuation and thus environmental temperature stability, these results support the concept that environmental heterogeneity brings about genetic heterogeneity. Fourth, Nei's Identity and Distance values were calculated from the relative allele frequencies of the two groups of barnacles. These values fall within the range calculated for populations of the same species, disproving pervious taxonomic studies which classified the two groups as subspecies. At present, however, the environmental differences between the two sites are increasing, especially with respect to the Salton Sea, these changes, coupled with the interpopulational differences observed in this study, lead to the final conclusions that selection is occurring and that the two populations are diverging.

Soule, J.D. 1957. Two species of Bryozoa Ctenostomata from the Salton Sea. Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Sciences. 56:21-30.
NOTES: Reports the presence of two bryozoan species Nolella blakei andVictorella pavida in the Salton Sea.

Vitton, B. 1968. Effects of oxygen tension, salinity, temperature and crowding on the distribution, growth and survival of Balanus amphitrite Darwin in the Salton Sea, California. Masters thesis, San Diego State College, San Diego State College, San Diego, California. 151 pp.

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