Pectocarya and Harpagonella Taxonomy & Images

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Harpagonella

The 2 species of Harpagonella occuring in North America:


Pectocarya
NORTH AMERICA

(See Tom Chester's web page on the Pectocarya of southern California!)

The 9 species of Pectocarya occuring in North America
(All except P. pusilla occur in San Diego County, California, and in Baja California/Baja California Sur, Mexico)

SOUTH AMERICA
The 6 species of Pectocarya occuring in South America

 Pectocarya anomala I. M. Johnst. - CHILE, PERU
 Pectocarya boliviana (I. M. Johnst.) I. M. Johnst. - BOLIVIA
 Pectocarya dimorpha (I. M. Johnst.) I. M. Johnst. - CHILE
 Pectocarya lateriflora (Lam.) DC. - PERU
*Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. subsp. ferocula (I. M. Johnst.) Thorne - CHILE, ARGENTINA
 Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. subsp. linearis - CHILE, ARGENTINA
*Pectocarya pusilla (A. DC.) A. Gray - CHILE

From:
    Horn, Nicola. 2000. Revision der Gattungen Plagiobothrys und Pectocarya in Chile und den angrenzenden Gebieten.
Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Fakultät für Biologie der Ludwig – Maximilians – Universität München. 
See Also:
    Johnston, I.M. 1924. Studies in the Boraginaceae II. A synopsis of the American native and immigrant Borages of the subfamily Boraginoideae. Contr. Gray Herb. 70: 3-61.
    Johnston, I.M. 1927. Studies in the Boraginaceae VI. A revision of the South American Boraginoideae. Contr. Gray Herb. 78: 1-118.
Veno, B. A. 1979. A revision of the genus Pectocarya (Boraginaceae) including reduction to synonymy of the genus Harpagonella
    (Boraginaceae). Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. (pdf)


* Species or infraspecies that also occur in both North America and South America


KEYS TO PECTOCARYA

1. Calyx radially symmetric, lobes > nutlets; nutlet body ± circular to obovate or ± rhomboid angular; lower cauline leaves opposite, fused at base (Sect. Gruvelia)
    2. Nutlets homomorphic, equally divergent, nutlet body ± rhomboid angular; calyx lobe tip with slender, uncinate hairs; stem not branched or branched near base,
        sparsely strigose; pedicel in fruit 1–2.3 mm ...... P. pusilla
    
2' Nutlets heteromorphic, divergent in pairs, nutlet body ± circular to obovate; calyx lobe tip with pungent, straight bristles; stem branched above, ± hispid;
        pedicel in fruit ± 0.5 mm ...... P. setosa
1' Calyx not radially symmetric, ± bilateral or irregular, lobes ≤ nutlets; nutlet body linear or oblanceolate to oblong or ovate-elliptic; lower cauline leaves generally
    alternate, not fused at base (Sect. Pectocarya)
    3. Nutlets of cauline fruits homomorphic, all nutlets similar in size and/or degree of ornamentation
        4. Nutlets conspicuously winged, the wing margin often bearing bristles or teeth, wing ≥ teeth or bristles
            5. Nutlet wing ± lobed on both sides proximally, with uncinate hairs or bristles distally, not toothed or lacerate ...... P. penicillata
            
5’ Nutlet wing not appearing lobed, hairs and bristles absent, toothed the length of the nutlet, teeth stout ...... P. platycarpa (2)
        4' Nutlets not conspicuously winged, nutlet body appearing to bear bristles or teeth ± directly, wing wanting or << teeth or bristles
            6. Stems ascending to erect; fruit not flat; nutlets strongly recurved to coiled ...... P. recurvata
            6' Stems prostrate to decumbent; fruit ± flat; nutlets straight or slightly recurved at tip ...... P. linearis var. ferocula (2)
    3' Nutlets of cauline fruits heteromorphic, the lower nutlet or both lower and upper nutlets toward inflorescence axis differing from nutlets away from inflorescence
        axis in size and/or degree of ornamentation
           7. Cauline and basal fruits  ± similar in shape and margin ornamentation (fruits monomorphic)
               8. Nutlets away from inflorescence axis winged, wing margins ± undulate, not or barely toothed, not lacerate ...... P. anisocarpa
               
8' Nutlets away from inflorescence axis winged or not, if winged, wing margin not entire to undulate, toothed to lacerate along ± length of nutlet
                   9. Stems ascending to erect; nutlet wing broad, tooth width at base ± = length, nutlet body ± oblong ...... P. platycarpa (2)
                   9' Stems prostrate to decumbent; nutlet wing, if present, narrow, tooth width at base generally << length, nutlet body ± linear ...... P. linearis var. ferocula (2)
          7' Cauline and basal fruits strongly dissimilar (fruits dimorphic); basal fruit nutlets ± homomorphic, and having nutlets ± without marginal ornamentation,
              cauline fruit nutlets heteromorphic and with obvious nutlet ornamentation
              10. Nutlets of cauline fruits in 2 planes; pair away from inflorescence axis incurved, nutlet wing lacerate-toothed; pair toward inflorescence axis
                     spreading to deflexed; pedicel in fruit partially adnate to lower nutlet toward inflorescence axis; corolla limb diameter 0.5-1 (1.5) mm ...... P. heterocarpa
              
10' Nutlets of cauline fruits all in 1 plane; pair away from inflorescence axis flat, nutlet wing generally entire with uncinate bristles; pair toward
                     inflorescence axis flat; pedicel in fruit free from nutlets; corolla limb diameter 1.5-3.5 mm ...... P. peninsularis

 Pectocarya in South America
(From Horn 2000)

1. Pflanze meistens unverzweigt, selten wenig verzweigt, Stengelblätter kreuzgegenständig, Rand der Klausen nur als kleine Wulst mit kräftigen
    Krallenhaaren ausgebildet (Gruvelia) . . . . . . . . . . . P. pusilla
1' Pflanze stark verzweigt, Rand der Klausen breit, tief gezähnt, mit kräftigen Krallenhaaren (Pectocarya) . . . . . . . . . . 2
   2. Blüten groß, im Durchmesser größer als 2,5 mm . . . . . 3
       3. Klausen im Umriß schmal länglich . . . . . . P. linearis
       3' Klausen im Umriß breit eiförmig bis trullat . . . . P. lateriflora
   2' Blüten sehr klein, im Durchmesser kleiner als 2,0 mm. . . . . 4
       4. Pflanze an der Basis mit kleistogamen Blüten; je zwei Klausen einer chasmogamen Blüte gleichgestaltet (dimorph), Rand der Klausen zur Hälfte gezähnt,
           Zähne kurz kegelförmig, wie aufgeblasen . . . . . . . . P. dimorpha
       4' Pflanze nur mit chasmogamen Blüten, alle vier Klausen einer Blüte gleichgestaltet, Rand der Klausen fast bis zur Basis gezähnt, Zähne nicht wie aufgeblasen . . . 5
          5. Klausen dicht besetzt mit langen Hakenhaaren, Klausenkörper daher kaum zu erkennen, Zähne lang, schmal kegelförmig . . . . . P. anomala
          5' Klausen spärlich besetzt mit kurzen Hakenhaaren, Klausenkörper daher gut zu erkennen, Zähne lang, breit dreieckig . . . . . . P. boliviana

Pectocarya in South America
(From Johnston 1927. Note: P. gracilis is now treated as a synonym of P. linearis)

1. Nutlets equally divergent, much compressed, obviously angular and rhomboidal in outline (sect. Gruvelia) ...... P. pusilla
1' Nutlets divergent in pairs, thickish, not obviously angular nor rhomboidal in outline (sect. Pectocarya)
    2. Back and sides of nutlets armed with coarse subteret subulate appendages tipped with uncinate hairs ...... P. anomala
    2' Back of nutlets smooth or at most papillate, margin with a lacerately or pectinately cut wing-margin bearing uncinate hairs
        3. Fruit dimorphic, that produced at base of plant with reflexed subpersistent nutlets obviously different from the divaricate nutlets produced by
            the normal fruit of the middle and upper stems ...... P. dimorpha
        3' Fruit of one sort, that produced at the base of the plant similar to that on the upper stem
            4. Nutlets linear, 2.5-3 mm long, sides parallel ...... P. gracilis = P. linearis
            4' Nutlets obovate or obovate-oblong
                5. Nutlet body 2-2.5 mm long, with medial dorsal ridge ...... P. lateriflora
                5' Nutlet body 1.5-2 mm long, lacking medial dorsal ridge ...... P. boliviana



Chromosome Numbers

Harpagonella - all North America
Harpagonella palmeri n=12 (Veno 1979)

Pectocarya - North America
Pectocarya anisocarpa n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya heterocarpa n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya linearis subsp. ferocula n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya penicillata n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya peninsularis n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya platycarpa n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya pusilla n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya recurvata n=12 (Ward 1983); n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya setosa n=12 (Veno 1979)


Literature

Guilliams, C. M., B. A. Veno, M. G. Simpson, and R. B. Kelley. 2013. Pectocarya anisocarpa, a new species of Boraginaceae from western North America,
      with a revised dichotomous key and photographic atlas for the genus in the region. Aliso 31: 1-13.
Horn, Nicola. 2000. Revision der Gattungen Plagiobothrys und Pectocarya in Chile und den angrenzenden Gebieten. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der
      Fakultät für Biologie der Ludwig – Maximilians – Universität München. 
Johnston, I.M. 1924. Studies in the Boraginaceae II. A synopsis of the American native and immigrant Borages of the subfamily Boraginoideae. Contr. Gray Herb. 70: 3-61.
Johnston, I.M. 1927. Studies in the Boraginaceae VI. A revision of the South American Boraginoideae. Contr. Gray Herb. 78: 1-118.
Veno, B. A. 1979. A revision of the genus Pectocarya (Boraginaceae) including reduction to synonymy of the genus Harpagonella (Boraginaceae). Doctoral Dissertation,
     University of California, Los Angeles. (pdf)
Ward, D. E. 1983. Chromosome counts for New Mexico and Southern Colorado. Phytologia 54: 302-308.
Zuloaga, F., Morrone, O. & Belgrano, M.J. 2008. Boraginaceae. Pp. 1631-1663 in Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay
      y Uruguay) 2 Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae-Fabaceae (Abarema-Schizolobium), ed.: