SOUTH AMERICA / SUDAMÉRICA
(Revised/Revisado 26 May 2016)

The 46 known species (47 taxa) of South American Cryptantha s.s. (44 species/45 taxa exclusive to South America).
Las 46 especies conocidas (47 taxones) de Cryptantha s.s. Sudamericana (44 especies/45 taxones exclusivos de Sudamérica).

[
= also in / tambien en N. Am; * = nutlets not imaged/nuecesitas no fotografió]
[NOTE: Scale bars of all photographs = 1 mm / NOTA: Las barras de escala de todas las fotografías = 1 mm]

Cryptantha s.s. Home Page/Pagína de inicio 

Johnston, I. M. 1926. Papers on the flora of northern Chile. Contr. Gray Herb. 85: 1-172.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING / LISTADO ALPHABÉTICO:
TAXON/TAXÓN                                                  COUNTRY/PAÍS
Cryptantha albida (Kunth) I. M. Johnston
Argentina
Cryptantha alfalfalis (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha alyssoides (DC.) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha aprica (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha argentea I. M. Johnston*
Chile
Cryptantha aspera (Philippi) Grau
Chile
Cryptantha calycina (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha calycotricha I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha capituliflora (Clos) Reiche
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha chaetocalyx (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha chispae Grau
Chile
Cryptantha cynoglossoides (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha dichita (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha diffusa (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Argentina Bolivia Chile
Cryptantha dimorpha (Philippi) Greene*
Chile
Cryptantha dolichophylla (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha filaginea (Philippi) Reiche
Chile Peru
Cryptantha filiformis (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha gayi I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha globulifera (Clos) Reiche
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha glomerata Lehmann ex G. Don
Chile
   var. glomerata
Chile
   var. quadrinunculata Grau
Chile
Cryptantha glomerulifera (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha gnaphalioides (A. DC.) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha granulosa (Ruiz & Pav.) I. M.Johnston
Peru
Cryptantha haplostachya (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha hispida (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha involucrata (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha kingii (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha latefissa R.L. Pérez-Mor.*
Argentina
Cryptantha limensis (A. DC.) I. M. Johnston*
Chile Peru
Cryptantha linearis (Colla) Greene
Chile
Cryptantha longifolia (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha maritima (Greene) Greene var. pilosa
Argentina
Cryptantha marioricardiana Teillier
Chile
Cryptantha marticorenae Grau
Chile
Cryptantha mendocina I. M. Johnston
Argentina
Cryptantha papillosa R.L. Pérez-Mor.*
Argentina
Cryptantha patagonica (Speg.) I. M. Johnston
Argentina
Cryptantha peruviana I. M. Johnston
Bolivia Peru
Cryptantha phaceloides (Clos) Reiche*
Chile
Cryptantha romanii I. M. Johnston*
Chile
Cryptantha spathulata (Philippi) Reiche*
Chile
Cryptantha subamplexicaulis (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha taltalensis I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha volckmannii (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha werdermanniana I. M. Johnston*
Chile

UNKNOWN or MISIDENTIFIED CRYPTANTHA / DESCONOCIDO o IDENTIFICADO ERRÓNEAMENTE CRYPTANTHA:




RECENT CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION / CAMBIOS RECIENTES EN LA CLASIFICACIÓN:

Greeneocharis (1 species in South America/1 especie en Sudamérica)
Cryptantha circumscissa
(Hooker & Arnott) I. M. Johnston var. c.


Johnstonella (2 species in South America/2 especies en Sudamérica)
Cryptantha diplotricha
(Philippi) Reiche
Cryptantha parviflora (Philippi) Reiche

Oreocarya (Absent in South America/Ausente en Sudamérica)


=Greeneocharis circumscissa (Hook. & Arn.) Rydberg var. c.


=Johnstonella diplotricha (Philippi) Hasenstab & M. G. Simpson
=Johnstonella parviflora (Philippi) Hasenstab & M. G. Simpson




LISTING BY INFRAGENERIC GROUP / LISTADO POR INFRAGENÉRICA GRUPO
(after Johnston 1927, except taxa with
*, these not treated by Johnston 1927
/ después de Johnston 1927, excepto taxones con
*, estos no tratada por Johnston 1927):

Section Cryptantha [Eucryptantha]
   C. aspera (Philippi) Grau *
   C. latefissa R.L. Pérez-Mor.
*

   
Capituliflorae
      C. capituliflora (Clos) Reiche
      C. longifolia (Philippi) Reiche
      C. spathulata (Philippi) Reiche
   
Glomeratae
      C. alfalfalis (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
      C. glomerata Lehmann ex G. Don
   
Glomeruliferae
      C. glomerulifera (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
   
Haplostachyae
      C. calycotricha I. M. Johnston
      C. haplostachya (Philippi) I. M. Johnston

Section Geocarya
   C. chispae Grau
*
   C. marticorenae Grau
*

   
Alyssoides
      C. alyssoides (A. DC.) Reiche
   
Dimorphae
      C. cynoglossoides (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
        [=Sec. Cryptantha, sensu Grau 1981]
      C. dimorpha (Philippi) Greene
        [=Sec. Cryptantha, sensu Grau 1981]
      C. involucrata (Philippi) Reiche
      C. volckmannii (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
   
Dolichophyllae
      C. dolichophylla (Philippi) Reiche
      C. gayi I. M. Johnston
   
Lineares
      C. aprica (Philippi) Reiche
      C. linearis (Colla) Greene
   
Virentes
      C. kingii (Philippi) Reiche

Section Krynitzkia
   C. maritima (Greene) Greene var. pilosa *
   C. papillosa R.L. Pérez-Mor. *

   
Albidae
      C. albida (Kunth) I. M. Johnston

   
Angustifoliae
      C. diplotricha (Philippi) Reiche
   
       =Johnstonella diplotricha (Philippi) Hasenstab & M. G. Simpson
      C. parviflora (Philippi) Reiche
      
    =Johnstonella parviflora (Philippi) Hasenstab & M. G. Simpson
   
Barbigerae
   
   C. argentea I. M. Johnston
   
   C. calycina (Philippi) Reiche
      C. chaetocalyx (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
   
   C. diffusa (Philippi) I. M. Johnston [incl. C. debilis (Philippi) Reiche]
   
   C. filaginea (Philippi) Reiche
   
   C. filiformis (Philippi) Reiche
   
   C. globulifera (Clos) Reiche
   
   C. granulosa (Ruiz & Pav.) I. M.Johnston
   
   C. limensis (A. DC.) I. M. Johnston
   
   C. patagonica (Speg.) I. M. Johnston
   
   C. peruviana I. M. Johnston
   
   C. romanii I. M. Johnston
   
   C. subamplexicaulis (Philippi) Reiche
   
   C. taltalensis I. M. Johnston
   
   C. werdermanniana I. M. Johnston
*
   
Gnaphalioides
   
   C. gnaphalioides (A. DC.) Reiche
   
   C. marioricardiana Teillier
*
   
Phaceloides
   
   C. dichita (Philippi) I. M. Johnston
      C. hispida (Philippi) Reiche
      C. phaceloides (Clos) Reiche
   
Texanae
   
   
C. mendocina I. M. Johnston *

  = both North and South America / tanto Norteamérica y Sudamérica


KEY / CLAVE (after / después de Johnston 1927)
Plants producing cleistogamic flowers; South America.
    Cleistogamic flowers simple, borne in the middle and upper or frequently in all  the leaf-axils, occasionally 
        replacing the chasmogamic flowers in the inflorescence proper ........................... Section/Sección Cryptantha [Eucryptantha]
    
Cleistomagamic flowers highly specialized, appearing as persistent ovoid or lenticular structures (cleistogenes)
        borne at the base of the plant below or just above the surface of the ground .................................. Section/Sección Geocarya
Plants not producing cleistogamic flowers; North and South America ................................................. Section/Sección "Krynitzkia"



Section/Sección Cryptantha (after/después de Johnston 1927)

Plant definitely perennial
   Fruiting calyx small, 2-2.5 mm long; nutlets ca. 2 mm long (Glomuliferae) ............................................................................................ C. glomerulifera
   Fruiting calyx large and coarse, 4-6 mm long; nutlets 2-3 mm long (Capituliflorae)
      Plant low, with short prostrate or widely spreading densely appressed white villous-hispid stems; mature inflorescence more or less capitate . C. capituliflora
      Plant erect or ascending, loosely branched; stems appressed-hispid; inflorescence becoming loose and open
         Plant canescent, abundantly appressed short-hispid on stems and leaves; style very much surpassing the nutlets ........................................ C. longifolia
         Plant green, very sparsely hirsute, evidently pustulate; style equaling or shortly surpassing the nutlets ................................................... C. spathulata
Plant definitely annual
   Fruiting calyces armed with stiff hairs, hispid or hirsute (Glomeratae)
      Nutlets 1.3-2 mm long; plant green; common, widely dispersed species ................................................................................................ C. glomerata
      Nutlets 2.5-3 mm long; plant canescent; rare local species .................................................................................................................... C. alfalfalis
   Fruiting calyces long-villous, lacking stiff hairs (Haplostachyae)
      Plant slender; cauline leaves 1-1.7 cm long, 2-3 mm wide; nutlets verrucose .................................................................................... C. haplostachya
      Plant coarse; cauline leaves 1-2 cm long, 5-10 mm wide; nutlets tuberculate ...................................................................................... C. calycotricha

Section/Sección Cryptantha: Annual Plants/Plantas Anuales (after/después de Grau 1982)

1. Klausen im Umriss schmal eiförmig, im Querschnitt flach halbmondförmig, d.h. ihre der Griffelbasis zugewendeten Innenflächen in einer Ebene liegend
    oder nur schwach zueinander geneigt .................................................................................................................................................. C. alfalfalis
1. Klausen im Umriss breit eiförmig im Querschnitt dreieckig, d.h. ihre der Griffelbasis zugewendeten Innenflächen +/- rechtwinklig zueinanderstehend
    2. Kelch lang wollhaarig
        3. Pflanze zart, Blätter schmal-lanzettlich bis 3 mm breit, Klausen mit geschlossenen Falten der Ansatzfläche ....................................... C. haplostachya
        
3. Planze kräftig, Blätter oblanzeolat bis oblong, bis 10 mm breit, Klausen mit dreieckig geöffneter Ansatzfläche ..................................... C. calycotricha
    2. Kelch borstig behaart, die beiden Klausen der kleistogamen Blüten nebeneinander liegend
        4. Stengelblätter breit eiförmig, chasmogame Blüten mit vier Klausen ................................................................... C. glomerata ssp. quadrinuculata
        
4. Stengelblätter schmal eiförmig, alle Blüten mit zwei Klausen
            5. Pusteln der Klausen glochidiat ................................................................................................................................................... C. aspera
            
5. Pusteln der Klausen glatt oder nur schwach strukturiert .................................................................................. C. glomerata subsp. glomerata

(after/después de Grau 1982, translated into English/tracudido en inglés)

1. Fruits in outline narrowly ovate, in cross-section flat/narrowly crescent-shaped, i.e. their style base facing inner surfaces lying in a plane
    or only slightly inclined to each other .................................................................................................................................................. C. alfalfalis
1. Fruits in outline broadly ovate, in cross-section triangular, i.e. their style base facing inner surfaces +/- perpendicular to each other standing
     2. Calyx long haired woolly
         3. Plant soft, leaves narrowly lanceolate to 3 mm wide, ventral groove with closed folds ................................................................ C. haplostachya
         3. Plant robust, leaves oblanceolate to oblong, to 10 mm wide, ventral groove with triangular open area ............................................. C. calycotricha
     2. Calyx hairy bristly, the two fruits of cleistogamous flowers juxtaposed
         4. Stem leaves widely ovate, chasmogamous flowers with four fruits .................................................................. C. glomerata ssp. quadrinuculata
         4. Stem leaves narrowly ovate, all flowers with two fruits
              5. Pustules of the fruit glochidiate ............................................................................................................................................... C. aspera
              5. Pustules of the fruit smooth or only weakly structured ................................................................................. C. glomerata subsp. glomerata



Section/Sección Geocarya (after/después de Johnston 1927)

Plant a strong-rooted coarse perennial (Alyssoides) .............................................................................................................. C. alyssoides
Plant definitely annual
   Root fleshy and spindleform (Dimorphae)
      Spikes bracted; calyx lobes linear
         Corolla 5-8 mm broad; chasmogamic flowers 4-ovulate .............................................................................................. C. involucrata
         Corolla 2-5 mm broad; chasmogamic flowers 2-ovulate ............................................................................................. C. volckmannii
      Spikes bractless; calyx lobes oblong
         Corolla 2-3 mm broad; hairs on calyx straw-colored; pubescence on stems loose .............................................................. C. dimorpha
         Corolla 4-5 mm broad; hairs on calyx bright yellow; pubescence on stems closely appressed ...................................... C. cynoglossoides
   Root firm and woody, attenuate
      Chasmogamic flowers 2-ovulate (Lineares)
         Mature calyx 2-2.5(-3) mm long; nutlets ca. 2 mm long; cleistogenes rather evidently reticulate-ribbed ................................... C. linearis
         Mature calyx 3-4.5 mm long; nutlets 2-3 mm long; cleistogenes weakly ribbed ...................................................................... C. aprica
      Chasmogamic flowers 4-ovulate
         Corolla conspicuous, 4-8 mm broad; nutlets 2.5-3 mm long, homomorphous or practically so, back obtuse (Dolichophyllae)
            Corolla 6-8 mm broad; leaves narrowly linear, 4-9(-11) cm long, 1.5-3 mm broad .................................................... C. dolichophylla
            Corolla 4-5 mm broad; [leaves] linear or narrowly lanceolate, 2-3.5(-4.5) cm long, 2-3(-5) mm broad ...................................... C. gayi
         Corolla inconspicuous, 1-3 mm broad; nutlets 1.5-2 mm long, definitely heteromorphous, back convex (Virentes) ........................ C. kingii



Section/Sección "Krynitzkia" (after/después de Johnston 1927)

Nutlets perfectly smooth and shiny, large, 2.8-3.3 mm long, Chile
   Plant perennial, shrubby at base (Gnaphalioides) ......................................................................................................................... C. gnaphalioides
   
Plant an annual herb (Phacelioides)
      Corolla 7-10 mm broad; leaves 7-13 mm broad .................................................................................................................................. C. dichita
      Corolla 4-7 mm broad; leaves 2-3 mm broad
         Nutlets 2 .................................................................................................................................................................................. C. hispida
         Nutlets 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................... C. phaceloides
Nutlets more or less roughened and dull
   Nutlets thick with deep plane sides, not crowded, only impinging on one another close to the gynobase and hence separated by
        open re-entrant sinuses, anterior face occupied by a large triangular (apparently) excavated areola; gynobase narrowly pyramidal;
        northern Argentina (Albidae) .......................................................................................................................................................... C. albida
   Nutlets strongly compressed with angulate or rounded edges, crowded and closely juxtaposed, not separated by open broad sinuses,
        anterior face with a very small shallow areola; gynobase subulate
      Edges of nutlets sharp, with a definite thin margin; abaxial nutlet more or less emphasized, usually largest and most persistent (Angustifoliae)
         Nutlet homomorphous, 1-1.5 mm long; spikes bracted throughout; Argentina ............................................ C. diplotricha = Johnstonella diplotricha
         Nutlets heteromorpous, 0.6-1 mm long; spikes bractless or bracted at base only; Chile and Peru .................... C. parviflora = Johnstonella parviflora
      Edges of nutlets merely angled or rounded, not sharp, mostly marginless but more or less thickly margined in a few species; axial nutlet
            more or less emphasized, usually the largest or most persistent (Barbigerae)
         Corolla evident or conspicuous, 2-7 mm broad
            Spikes bractless; Chilean
               Plant persistent, a perennial or long-lived annual; stems becoming prostrate or trailing
                  Plant loosely branched, forming a loose broad open mat; pubescence canescent; corolla 5-6 mm broad .......................... C. subamplexicaulis
                  Plant densely branched, forming a dense cushion, pubescence silvery; corolla 2-4 mm broad .................................................... C. argentea
               Plant a short-lived annual; branches short, erect, or ascending
                  Nutlets homomorphous, obsurely roughened ................................................................................................................. C. chaetocalyx
                  Nutlets heteromorphous, definitely tuberculate or papillate ................................................................................................... C. filiformis
            Spikes bracted
               Corolla 2-4 mm broad; nutlets homomorphous or heteromorphous, 1.3-1.8 mm long
                  Style much surpassing the 4 nutlets; Peru ........................................................................................................................ C. granulosa
                  Style shortly surpassing the 2-4 nutlets; Chile .................................................................................................................. C. taltalensis
                  Corolla 5-6 mm broad; nutlets homomorphous, ea. 2 mm long; Chile ........................................................................................... C. romani
         Corolla inconspicuous or minute, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm broad
            Spikes bracted; style noticeably surpassing the nutlets
               Fruiting calyx 3-4 mm long, with narrow erect or slightly spreading lobe tips; Chile and southern Peru ............................................. C. filaginea
               Fruiting calyx 5-6 mm long, with broad decidedly spreading lobe tips; Peru ................................................................................. C. limensis
            Spikes bractless; style equally the nutlet or just surpassing them
               Nutlets obscurely tuberculate or almost smooth
                  Fruiting calyx 8-11 mm long; nutlets lanceolate, 2.8-3.2 mm long; plant coarse shaggy-hirsute; Andes of northern Chile ................... C. calycina
                  Fruiting calyx 2-3 mm long; nutlets lance-ovate, ca. 2 mm long; plant finely strigose or appressed short-hispid; Patagonia ........... C. patagonica
               Nutlets definitely tuberculate or wrinkled
                  Back of nutlets tuberculate, coarsely if at all transversely grooved
                     Fruiting calyx 2.5-3 mm long, lobes lance-linear or narrowly lanceolate; Peru ....................................................................... C. peruviana
                     Fruiting calyx 3-4 mm long, lobes linear or lance-linear; Chile and Argentina ....................................................................... C. globulifera
                  Back of nutlets with transverse, lineate grooves
                     Spikes very tawny; fruiting calyx 3-4 mm long; plant stiff; Chile and Argentina ......................................................................... C. diffusa
                     Spikes green; fruiting calyx 2-2.5 mm long; plant weak; Bolivia ................................... [C. debilis] = C. diffusa, sensu Zuloaga et al. 2008 



LITERATURE CITED / LITERATURA CITADA

Brako, L. and J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri
     Botanical Garden 45.
Dillon, M. O., S. L. González, M. Z. Cruz, P. L. Asencio, and V. Q. Silvestre. 2011. Floristic Checklist of the Peruvian Lomas Formations: Catálogo florístico de las
     peruanas. Arnaldoa 18:7-32. (pdf)
Grau, J. 1982. Die annuellen sippen von Cryptantha sect. Cryptantha in Chile. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 18: 379-400. (pdf)
Johnston, I. M. 1927. Studies in the Boraginaceae VI. 1. A revision of the South American Boraginoideae. Contributions of the Gray Herbarium 78: 1-118. (pdf)
Marticorena, C. and M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Gayana Botanica 42: 1-157. (pdf)
Pérez-Moreau, R. L. 1976. Revisión del género Cryptantha en la Argentina (Boraginaceae). Darwiniana 20:155-188. (pdf)
Pérez-Moreau, R. L. and S. Crespo. 1999. Boraginaceae: Cryptantha. En: Zuloaga, F. O. & Morrone, O. (eds), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la
     República Argentina II. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 72: 377-378. (pdf)
Reiche, K. 1910. Estudios Críticos Sobre la Flora de Chile: Cryptantha. Pp. 217-236 Flora de Chile. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago, Chile. (pdf)
Schwarzer, C. 2007. Systematische Untersuchungen an den peruanischen Vertretern der Gattungen Pectocarya D.C. ex Meisn., Amsinckia Lehm.,
     Plagiobothrys Fisch. & C.A.Mey. und Cryptantha Lehm. ex G.Don (Boraginaceae). Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany. (pdf)
Teillier, S. 1994. Flora del Parque Nacional el Morado (Region Metropolitana, Chile). Gayana Botanica 51:13-47. (pdf)
Teillier, S. 2009. Una nueva especie Leñosa de Cryptantha (Boraginaceae) para la Flora de Chile. Novon 19: 401–403. (pdf)
Zuloaga, F., O. Morrone, and M. J. Belgrano. 2008. Boraginaceae. Pp. 1631-1663 Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil,
     Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). (pdf)