Cryptantha

Andersonglossum Cryptantha Eremocarya Greeneocharis Harpagonella Pectocarya Plagiobothrys Simpsonanthus
Adelinia Amsinckia Amsinckiopsis Andersonglossum Cryptantha Dasynotus Eremocarya Greeneocharis Gruvelia Harpagonella Johnstonella Oncaglossum Oreocarya Pectocarya Plagiobothrys Simpsonanthus Sonnea

Systematics of Amsinckiinae (Boraginaceae): The Popcorn Flowers

[Amsinckiinae HOME]

Cryptantha Lehmann ex G.Don

Gen. Hist. 4(1): 373 (1837)

Pronunciation/Pronunciación:
Cryp-tán-tha
Etymology/Etimología:

krypto/crypto, "hidden / econdido" + anthos, "flower / flor," after the cleistogamous flowers in the type species / de las flores cleistógamas en la especies tipo
Synonyms/Sinónimos:












Echinospermum Sw. ex Lehm.
Eremocarya Greene
Eritrichium Schrad. ex Gaudin
Greeneocharis Gürke & Harms
Hemisphaerocarya Brand
Johnstonella Brand
Krynitzkia Fisch. & C.A. Meyer, Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 7: 52. 1841
Lithospermum L.
Myosotis L.
Oreocarya Greene
Piptocalyx Torr., ined.
Rochelia Rch.
Wheelerella G.B. Grant, ined.]

Type Species/EspeciesTipo:

Cryptantha glomerata Lehmann ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4(1): 373 (1837)
      Lectotype chosen by Johnston 1935, J. Arnold Arbor. 16(2): 196. 1935 [24 Apr 1935]

Distribution of Cryptantha:
cryptantha distribution 1
cryptantha distribution 2
LEFT: GBIF 2019: https://www.gbif.org. Accessed 24 Dec 2019.
RIGHT: POWO. 2019. Plants of the World Online. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org. Green=native. Accessed 24 Dec 2019.




TOTAL NUMBER OF TAXA IN GENUS:
104
species and 120 minimally ranked taxa
FULL SYNONOMY HERE

NORTH AMERICAN TAXA
[SA = also in South America]

59 species (74 taxa) of Cryptantha in North America
59 especies (74 taxones) de Cryptantha de Norteamericana
Johnston's 1925 Treatment


List by Sections/Series

SOUTH AMERICAN TAXA
[NA = also in North America]

46 species (47 taxa) of Cryptantha in South America
46 especies (47 taxones) de Cryptantha de Sudamericana
Johnston's 1927 Treatment
Johnston's 1929 Treatment

List by Sections/Series

TAXON/TAXÓN                                                                 COUNTRY/PAÍS
Cryptantha affinis (A.Gray) Greene
Canada USA
Cryptantha ambigua (A.Gray) Greene Canada USA
Cryptantha arenophila Rebman & M.G.Simpson
Mexico  
Cryptantha barbigera (A.Gray) Greene
Mexico USA
   var. barbigera
Mexico USA
   var. fergusoniae J.F.Macbride
USA
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene
Mexico USA
   var. clevelandii
Mexico USA
   var. florosa I.M.Johnston
Mexico USA
Cryptantha clokeyi I.M.Johnston  1B.2
USA
Cryptantha corollata (I.M.Johnston) I.M.Johnston
  USA
Cryptantha crassisepala (Torrey & A Gray) Greene
USA
   var. crassisepala
USA
   var. elachantha I.M.Johnston
  USA
Cryptantha crinita Greene 1B.2
USA
Cryptantha cycloptera (Greene) Greene 
  Mexico USA
   f. truncata M.E.Mabry & Rebman
  USA
Cryptantha decipiens (M.E.Jones) A.Heller
Mexico USA
Cryptantha dissita I.M.Johnston 1B.2  BE/SI
USA
Cryptantha dumetorum (Greene ex A.Gray) Greene
USA
Cryptantha echinella Greene
USA
Cryptantha echinosepala J.F.Macbride
  Mexico  
Cryptantha excavata Brandegee 1B.1  WI
  USA
Cryptantha fendleri (A.Gray) Greene 2B.2
Canada USA
Cryptantha flaccida (Douglas ex Lehmann) Greene  WI
USA
Cryptantha foliosa (Greene) Greene
Mexico  
Cryptantha ganderi I.M.Johnston 1B.1
  Mexico USA
Cryptantha glomeriflora Greene 4.3
USA
Cryptantha gracilis Osterhout
USA
Cryptantha grandiflora Rydberg
USA
Cryptantha hispidissima Greene
USA
Cryptantha hispidula Greene ex Brand  SE
USA
Cryptantha hooveri I.M.Johnston 1A
USA
Cryptantha incana Greene 1B.3
  USA
Cryptantha intermedia (A.Gray) Greene  
Canada? Mexico USA
  var. hendersonii (A. Nelson) Jepson & Hoover
USA
  var. johnstonii J.F.Macbride
Mexico USA
  var. intermedia  WI/IN 
Mexico USA
Cryptantha juniperensis R.B.Kelley & M.G.Simpson
  Mexico USA
Cryptantha kelseyana Greene
Canada USA
Cryptantha leiocarpa (Fischer & C.A.Meyer) Greene
  USA
Cryptantha mariposae I. M. Johnston 1B.3  SE
  USA
Cryptantha maritima (Greene) Greene  SA
  Mexico USA
   var. cedrosensis (Greene) I. M. Johnston
Mexico
   var. maritima
Mexico USA
   var. pilosa I. M. Johnston  SA
Mexico USA
   var. vizcainensis Rebman & M.G.Simpson
Mexico  
Cryptantha martirensis M. G. Simpson & Rebman
Mexico  
Cryptantha micromeres (A.Gray) Greene
Mexico USA
Cryptantha microstachys (Greene ex A.Gray) Greene
Mexico USA
Cryptantha milobakeri I.M.Johnston  SI
USA
Cryptantha minima Rydberg
USA
Cryptantha mohavensis (Greene) Greene
USA
Cryptantha muricata (Hooker & Arnott) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbride
Mexico USA
   var. denticulata (Greene) I. M. Johnston
USA
   var. jonesii (A. Gray) I. M. Johnston
Mexico USA
   var. muricata
USA
Cryptantha nemaclada Greene
USA
Cryptantha nevadensis A.Nelson & P.B.Kennedy
USA
Cryptantha oxygona (A.Gray) Greene
USA
Cryptantha patula Greene
Mexico  
Cryptantha pondii Greene
Mexico  
Cryptantha pterocarya (Torrey) Greene 
Mexico USA
  var. pterocarya
Mexico USA
     f. pseudocycloptera M.E.Mabry & M.G.Simpson
Mexico USA
  var. purpusii Jepson
Mexico USA
  var. stenoloba I.M.Johnston
USA
Cryptantha rattanii Greene 4.3
USA
Cryptantha recurvata Coville
USA
Cryptantha rostellata (Greene) Greene 4.2
USA
Cryptantha scoparia A.Nelson 4.3
USA
Cryptantha simulans Greene
USA
Cryptantha sparsiflora (Greene) Greene
USA
Cryptantha spithamaea I.M.Johnston 1B.3
USA
Cryptantha texana (A.DC.) Greene
USA
Cryptantha torreyana (A.Gray) Greene
Canada USA
   var. pumila (A. Heller) I.M.Johnston
USA
   var. torreyana
Canada USA
Cryptantha traskiae I.M.Johnston 1B.1
USA
Cryptantha utahensis (A.Gray) Greene
Mexico USA
Cryptantha watsonii (A.Gray) Greene
Canada USA
Cryptantha wigginsii I.M.Johnston 1B.2
Mexico USA
   
NEW TAXA IN PROGRESS (names tentative):  
Cryptantha catalinensis, sp. nov.
USA
Cryptantha clementina, sp. nov.
USA
Cryptantha kinkiensis, sp. nov.
USA
Cryptantha sp. nov.
Mexico USA
Cryptantha whippleae, sp. nov.
USA
TAXON/TAXÓN                                                                COUNTRY/PAÍS
Cryptantha alfalfalis (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha alyssoides (DC.) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha aprica (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha argentea I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha aspera (Philippi) Grau
Chile
Cryptantha calycina (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha calycotricha I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha capituliflora (Clos) Reiche
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha chaetocalyx (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha chispae Grau
Chile
Cryptantha cynoglossoides (Philippi) I.M.Johnston [Grau 1981]
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha debilis (Philippi) Reiche
Bolivia Chile
Cryptantha dichita (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha diffusa (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Argentina Bolivia Chile
Cryptantha dimorpha (Philippi) Greene [Grau 1981]
Chile
Cryptantha dolichophylla (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha filaginea (Philippi) Reiche
Chile Peru
Cryptantha filiformis (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha gayi I.M.Johnston Chile
Cryptantha globulifera (Clos) Reiche
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha glomerata Lehmann ex G.Don
Chile
   subsp. glomerata
Chile
   subsp. quadrinuculata Grau
Chile
Cryptantha glomerulifera (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Argentina Chile
Cryptantha gnaphalioides (A.DC.) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha granulosa (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M.Johnston
Peru
Cryptantha hispida (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha involucrata (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha haplostachya (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha kingii (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha latefissa R.L.Pérez-Mor.
Argentina
Cryptantha limensis (A.DC.) I.M.Johnston
Chile Peru
Cryptantha linearis (Colla) Greene
Chile
Cryptantha longifolia (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha marioricardiana Teillier [tentative]
Chile
Cryptantha maritima (Greene) Greene NA
Argentina
   var. pilosa I.M.Johnston  NA Argentina  
Cryptantha marticorenae Grau
Chile
Cryptantha mendocina I.M.Johnston
Argentina
Cryptantha papillosa R.L.Pérez-Mor.
Argentina
Cryptantha patagonica (Speg.) I.M.Johnston
Argentina
Cryptantha peruviana I.M.Johnston
Bolivia Peru
Cryptantha phaceloides (Clos) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha romanii I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha spathulata (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha subamplexicaulis (Philippi) Reiche
Chile
Cryptantha taltalensis I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha volckmannii (Philippi) I.M.Johnston
Chile
Cryptantha werdermanniana I.M.Johnston
Chile
   
UNKNOWN/UNCERTAIN  
Cryptantha unknown - South America  
   
California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Inventory Listings:
1A = California endemic, presumed extinct
1B = Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere
2 = Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere
3 = review list (they need more information to list or not)
4 = Limited distribution (Watch List)
.1 = Seriously endangered in California (over 80% of occurrences threatened / high degree and immediacy of threat)
.2 = Fairly endangered in California (20-80% occurrences threatened)
.3 = Not very endangered in California (<20% of occurrences threatened or no current threats known)

Plant Taxa with High Affinity to Ultramafic Substrates in California (after Safford et al. 2005, Safford and Miller 2020):
BE/SI = Broad Endemic/Strong Indicator
SE = Strong Endemic
SI = Strong Indicator
WI = Weak Indicator
WI/IN = Weak Indicator/Indifferent



KEYS/CLAVES TO SOUTH AMERICAN CRYPTANTHA

CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF AMSINCKIINAE, including Cryptantha


LITERATURE CITED:

Don, G. 1837. A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants (Original Title: A General System of Gardening and Botany). Gilbert & Rivington, London, UK.
Grau, J. 1981. Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Cryptantha Lehm. (Boraginaceae) und ihre systematische Stellung. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 17:511-526.
Grau, J. 1982. Die annuellen sippen von Cryptantha sect. Cryptantha in Chile. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 18:379-400.
Hasenstab-Lehman, K. E. and M. G. Simpson. 2012. Cat’s eyes and popcorn flowers: Phylogenetic systematics of the genus Cryptantha s.l. (Boraginaceae). Systematic Botany 37:738–757.
Johnston, I. M. 1924. Studies in the Boraginaceae III. Notes on miscellaneous American Boraginaceae. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 73: 73-78.
Johnston, I. M. 1925. Studies in the Boraginaceae IV. The North American species of Cryptantha. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 74:1-114.
Johnston, I. M. 1927. Studies in the Boraginaceae VI. A revision of the South American Boraginoideae. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 78:1-118.
Johnston, I. M. 1928. Studies in the Boraginaceae–VII. 2. Notes on various Boraginoideae. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 81:73-83.
Johnston, I. M. 1929. I. Papers on the flora of northern Chile. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 85:1-172.
Johnston, I. M. 1930. Studies in the Boraginaceae,—VIII. II. Taxonomic note concerning various Borages. Contributions from the Gray Hebarium of Harvard University 92:89-95.
Johnston, I. M. 1935. Studies in the Boraginaceae XI. Notes on Brand’s treatment of Cryptantha. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 16:168-173.
Johnston, I. M. 1935. Studies in the Boraginaceae XI. New or otherwise noteworthy species. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 16:173-205.
Johnston, I. M. 1937. Studies in the Boraginaceae XII. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 18:1-25.
Johnston, I. M. 1939. Studies in the Boraginaceae, XIII: New or otherwise noteworthy species, chiefly from western United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 20:375-402.
Johnston, I. M. 1940. Studies in the Boraginaceae XIV. Miscellaneous species from Asia, Malaysia, and America. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 21:48-66.
Johnston, I. M. 1959. Some noteworthy Borages. Wrightia 2:13-22.
Johnston, I. M. 1961. Notes on some Texan borages. Wrightia 2:158-162.
Kelley, R. B., M. G. Simpson, and K. E. Hasenstab. 2012. Cryptantha. Pp. 455-468 in B. G. Baldwin, D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken (eds.),
      The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California. Second Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Mabry, M. E., R. A. Dowdy, L. M. Simpson, J. P. Rebman, and M. G. Simpson. 2016. Taxonomy of the winged popcorn flower: Cryptantha pterocarya (Boraginaceae). Phytotaxa 253:97-130.
Mabry, M. E. and M. G. Simpson. 2018. Evaluating the monophyly and biogeography of Cryptantha (Boraginaceae). Systematic Botany 43:53-76.
Macbride, J. F. 1960. Botanical Series Field Museum of Natural History 13:1-854 (Boraginaceae 539-609, Cryptatha 601-605).
Moroni, P., A. Martínez, and M. G. Simpson. 2021. Nomenclatural revision of Cryptantha (Boraginaceae s. str.) names linked to South American taxa. PhytoKeys 181:29-47.
Pérez-Moreau, R. L. 1976. Revisión del género Cryptantha en la Argentina (Boraginaceae). Darwiniana 20:155-188.
Safford, H.D., J.H. Vires, and S.P. Harrison. 2005. Serpentine Endemism in the California Flora: A Database of Serpentine Affinity. Madroño 52:222-257.
Simpson, M. G. and R. B. Kelley. 2017. Cryptantha nevadensis var. rigida elevated to species with a new name, C. juniperensis. Phytotaxa 295:227-236.

Simpson, M. G., C. M. Guilliams, K. E. Hasenstab-Lehman, M. E. Mabry, and L. Ripma. 2017. Phylogeny of the popcorn flowers: Use of genome skimming to evaluate monophyly
      and interrelationships in subtribe Amsinckiinae (Boraginaceae). Taxon 66:1406–1420.
Simpson, M. G. and J. P. Rebman. 2021. Research in Boraginaceae: A new variety of Cryptantha maritima, Cryptantha pondii resurrected, and Johnstonella echinosepala transferred back to Cryptantha. Phytotaxa 509:185–210.
Simpson, M.G. & Rebman, J.P. 2021. A new species of Cryptantha restricted to dunes in northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Madroño 68: 126-136.





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