Boraginaceae
Subtribe Cryptanthinae
Systematics

Michael G. Simpson
San Diego State University
San Diego, California, U.S.A.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Terminology Used in Cryptanthinae Keys

Boraginaceae-Cryptanthinae Home Page

(Modified from Simpson, M. G. 2010. Plant Systematics. 2nd ed. Elsevier-Academic Press.)

abaxial Surface most distant or away from the axis, the lower or outer surface of organ. Syn: dorsal. (position)
accrescent Parts persistent and continuing to grow beyond what is normal or typical, e.g. calyx of Physalis, Solanaceae. (duration)
actinomorphic Radially symmetrical, with 3 or more planes of symmetry. (symmetry)
acuminate Apical margins abruptly incurved (concave), the apical intersection angle <45°. (apex)
acute Apical margins approximately straight, the intersection angle 45°– 90°. (apex)
adaxial Surface toward or nearest the axis, the upper or inner surface of organ. Syn: ventral. (position)
annual Plant living 1 year or less. (duration)
bract A modified, generally reduced leaf, generally found associated with reproductive organs, e.g. subtending the flowers or inflorescence axes of
   flowering plants. Adj: bracteate. (leaf structural type)
bristle An external hairlike plant structure, but stouter than a trichome.
caespitose/cespitose Referring to a generally short, bunched, much-branched plant forming a cushion
calyx The outermost series or whorl of modified leaves in the perianth, the units of which are sepals. (flower part)
corolla The innermost series or whorl of modified leaves in the perianth, the units of which are petals. (flower part)
deltate Three-sided, length : width ratio 1:1. (shape)
dorsal Surface most distant or away from the axis, the lower or outer surface of organ. Syn: abaxial. (position)
duration The length of life of a plant or plant part. (temporal phenomena)
ebracteate Lacking bracts. (flower attachment)
gynobase
The structure to which nutlet(s) are attached in some Boraginaceae (Boraginoideae), of various shapes but typically distinct from the terete, apical style.
gynobasic With style or gynobase arising at the base and center of a usually 4-lobed ovary, e.g. Boraginaceae, Lamiaceae. (style position)
heteromorphic Having two or more forms of a structure. 
hirsute With long, rather stiff trichomes. (vestiture)
hispid With very long, stiff trichomes, often capable of penetrating skin. (vestiture)
homomorphic Having only one form of a structure. 
lanceolate Margins curved, widest near base, length:width ratio between 6:1 and 3:1. (shape)
lance-ovate Margins curved, widest near base, length:width ratio between 3:1 and 2:1. (shape)
muricate Having coarse, radially elongate, rounded protuberances. (epidermal excrescence)
narrowly acute Apical margins approximately straight, the intersection angle <45°. (apex)
ovate Margins curved, widest near base, length : width ratio 2:1 to 3:2. (shape)
papillate Having fine, minute, rounded protuberances. (epidermal excrescence)
pedicel A flower stalk. Adj: pedicellate. (flower part; inflorescence part)
perennial A plant living more than 2 years. (duration)
pilose With soft, straight to slightly shaggy trichomes at right angles to the surface. (vestiture)
puberulent Minutely pubescent. (vestiture)
pubescent (a) With straight, short, soft, somewhat scattered, slender trichomes. (b) A general term, meaning having trichomes. (vestiture)
rotate With a short tube and wide limbs oriented at right angles to the tube. (perianth type)
salverform Trumpet-shaped; with a long, slender tube and flaring limbs at right angles to tube. (perianth type)
schizocarp of nutlets A schizocarp in which a single ovary becomes lobed during development, each lobe developing at maturity into a nutlet,
   e.g. Boraginaceae, Lamiaceae. (fruit type)
scorpioid cyme A monochasium in which the branches develop on alternating sides of each sequential axis, appearing geniculate (zig-zag) or circinate
    (coiled), at least early
in development; may intergrade with helicoid cyme. (inflorescence type)
smooth Flat, without vertical curves or bends. Syn: plane. (configuration, transverse posture)
spinulose With a minute, sharp, spinelike apical process. (apical process)
strigose Covered with dense, coarse, bent, and mostly flat trichomes, often with a bulbous base. (vestiture)
strigulose Minutely strigose. (vestiture)
tessellate Having a cobblestone-like appearance (L., made of small, square stones)
trichome An external, hairlike plant structure
tuberculate Having prominent, rounded protuberances. (epidermal excrescence)
ventral Surface toward or nearest the axis, the upper or inner surface of organ. Syn: adaxial. (position)
vestiture Trichome cover, a combination of trichome type, length, strength, shape, density, and color. (surface)