Amsinckiinae

Andersonglossum Cryptantha Eremocarya Greeneocharis Harpagonella Pectocarya Plagiobothrys Simpsonanthus
Adelinia Amsinckia Amsinckiopsis Andersonglossum Cryptantha Dasynotus Eremocarya Greeneocharis Gruvelia Harpagonella Johnstonella Oncaglossum Oreocarya Pectocarya Plagiobothrys Simpsonanthus Sonnea

Systematics of Amsinckiinae (Boraginaceae): The Popcorn Flowers

[Amsinckiinae HOME]


CHROMOSOME COUNTS:

Adelinia - all North America
Adelinia grandis 2n=24 (cited by Kelley 2012; primary source unknown)

Amsinckia
North America
Amsinckia angustifolia 2n=32 (Strey 1931, in Britton 1951)
Amsinckia douglasiana n=6 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=24 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia furcata n=7 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=14 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia gloriosa n=12 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=24 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia grandiflora n=6 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=12 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia intermedia 2n=15 (Schoen et al. 1997); 2n=34 (Van Loon 1982); 2n=ca. 32 (Strey 1931, in Britton 1951)
Amsinckia lunaris n=4 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=8 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia lycopsoides 2n=ca. 32 (Strey 1931, in Britton 1951)
Amsinckia micrantha Suksd. = A. menziesii 2n=16 (Probatova et al. 1996); 2n = 32 (Popava et al. 1990)
Amsinckia spectabilis n=5 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=10 (Schoen et al. 1997)
Amsinckia tessellata (N. American populations only) n=12 (Ray and Chisaki 1957)
Amsinckia vernicosa n=7 (Ray and Chisaki 1957); 2n=14 (Schoen et al. 1997)
South America
Amsinckia calycina n=17, 2n=34 (Friend 1982)

Andersonglossum - all North America
Andersonglossum boreale 2n=24 (Love and Love 1982)

Cryptantha
North America
Cryptantha affinis 2n=24 (cited by Grau 1983)
Cryptantha barbigera n=6 (Ward 1983), n=12 (Sivinski 1993)
Cryptantha hispidissima n=12 (cited on specimen, RSA0153794, by F. Chisaki 1960; unpublished, via per. comm. Peter Raven)
Cryptantha intermedia 2n=24 (unverified; source unknown)
Cryptantha maritima var. pilosa 2n=20 (Las Peñas 2005)
Cryptantha pterocarya (var. unknown) n=12 (Rattenbury 1959; specimen cited: Raven 11723, UC 1112449)
Cryptantha pterocarya var. pterocarya n=12 (Ward 1983; specimen cited: Spellenberg 6457, NMC 53467; var. det. in Mabry et al. 2016.)
South America
Cryptantha alfalfalis Sec. Cryptantha 2n=ca. 120 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha calycotricha Sec. Cryptantha 2n=64 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha capituliflora Sec. Cryptantha 2n=64 (Las Peñas 2003)
Cryptantha diffusa Sec. Krynitzkia 2n=14 (Grau 1983); 2n=56 (Las Peñas 2005)
Cryptantha dolichophylla Sec. Geocarya 2n=62 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha gayi Sec. Geocarya 2n=62 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha globulifera Sec. Krynitzkia 2n=14 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha glomerata Sec. Cryptantha 2n=64, 124 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha haplostachya Sec. Cryptantha 2n=64 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha kingii Sec. Geocarya 2n=62 (Grau 1983)
Cryptantha linearis Sec. Geocarya 2n=62 (Grau 1983)

Eremocarya - all North America
Eremocarya lepida n=12 (Mathew & Raven 1962)
Eremocarya micrantha n=12 (Mathew & Raven 1962)

Greeneocharis - all North America
Greeneocharis circumscissa n=12, 18 (Mathew & Raven 1962)
Greeneocharis circumscissa n=12, 18 (Mathew & Raven 1962)
Greeneocharis similis n=6 (Mathew & Raven 1962)

Gruvelia - all North America
Gruvelia pusilla n=12 (Veno 1979)

Harpagonella -
all North America
Harpagonella palmeri n=12 (Veno 1979)

Johnstonella
North America
Johnstonella angelica n=9 (Sivinski 1993)
Johnstonella pusilla n=9 (Sivinski 1993)
South America
Johnstonella diplotricha 2n=36 (Las Peñas 2003)
Johnstonella parviflora 2n=20 (Grau 1983)

Oreocarya - all North America
Oreocarya atwoodii n=12 (cited in Higgins 1971; Sivinski 1993); 2n=24 (cited by Grau 1983)
Oreocarya bakeri n=12 (cited in Higgins 1971; Sivinski 1993)
Oreocarya capitata n=12 (Sivinski 1993)
Oreocarya flava n=12 (cited in Higgins 1971; Sivinski 1993)
Oreocarya fulvocanescens n=12 (cited in Higgins 1971)
Oreocarya oblata n=12 (Sivinski 1993)
Oreocarya paysonii n=12 (Sivinski 1993)
Oreocarya shackletteana 2n=24 (Dawe and Murray 1981)
Oreocarya suffruticosa n=6 (Ward 1983); n=9 (Taylor & Brockman 1966; cited in Higgins 1971); n=12 (Sivinski 1993, as Cryptantha pustulosa)
Oreocarya thyrsiflora n=12 (cited in Higgins 1971)
Oreocarya virgata n=12 (Sivinski 1993)

Pectocarya
North America
Pectocarya anisocarpa n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya heterocarpa n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya linearis subsp. ferocula n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya penicillata n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya peninsularis n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya platycarpa n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya pusilla [=Gruvellia pusilla] n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya recurvata n=12 (Ward 1983); n=12 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya setosa n=12 (Veno 1979)
South America
Pectocarya dimorpha n=12 (Veno 1979); 2n=24 (Grau 1988; Horn 2000)
Pectocarya lateriflora 2n=60[5x] (Horn 2000)
Pectocarya linearis subsp. ferocula n=24 (Veno 1979)
Pectocarya linearis subsp. linearis n=36 (Veno 1979); 2n=72 (Grau 1988); 2n=72[6x] (Horn 2000)

Plagiobothrys
North America
Plagiobothrys scouleri var. penicillatus [Allocarya penicillata]
   
=Plagiobothrys cognatus, P. cusickii, P. hispidulus, or P. nitens
2n=54 (Love and Love 1982)
South America
Plagiobothrys calandrinoides (Phil.) I.M. Johnst. n=34 (Moore 1981)
Plagiobothrys collinus (Phil.) I.M. Johnst. var. collinus 2n=24 (Grau 1988); 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys congestus (Wedd.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys corniculatus N. Horn, ined. 2n=36[3x] (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys corymbosus (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=48[4x] (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys fulvus (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Grau 1988); 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys gracilis (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=36[3x] (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys graminifolius (Phil.) N. Horn, ined. 2n=48[4x] (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys humilis (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys kunthii (Walp.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys linifolius (Walp.) I.M. Johnst. subsp. linifolius 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys magellanicus N. Horn, ined. 2n=48[4x], 2n=72[6x]
Plagiobothrys myosotoides (Lehm.) Brand subsp. myosotoides, misappl.
= P. verrucosus (Phil.) I.M. Johnst.
2n=24 (Grau 1988); 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys polycaulis (Phil.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Grau 1988); 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys procumbens (Colla) A. Gray 2n=72 (Grau 1971); 2n=36,48 (Grau 1988); 2n=48[4x] (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys pulchellus (Phil.) I.M. Johnst. 2n=24 (Grau 1988); 2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys myosotoides (Lehm.) Brand subsp. verrucosus N. Horn, ined.
= P. verrucosus (Phil.) I.M. Johnst.
2n=24 (Horn 2000)
Plagiobothrys tenellus (Hook.) A. Gray 2n=58+1 (Grau 1971)


LITERATURE CITED:

Britton, D. M. 1951. Cytogenetic studies on the Boraginaceae. Brittonia 7: 233-266.
Dawe, J.C. & Murray, D.F. 1981. Chromosome numbers of selected Alaskan vascular plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 1373-1381. https://doi.org/10.1139/b81-187
Friend, D. A. 1982. Chromosome number in a Victorian population of Amsinckia calycina. Austral. Weeds 1: 7-8.
Grau, J. 1971. Cytologische Untersuchungen an Boraginaceae II. Mit. Bot. Staatssamml. München 9: 177-194.
Grau, J. 1983. Life form, reproductive biology and distribution of the Californian/Chilean genus Cryptantha. Pp. 231-240 in K. Kubitski (ed.), Sonderbände des Naturwissenshaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg.
    P. Pary, Hamburg.
Grau, J. 1988. Chromosomenzahlen Chilenischer Boraginaceae. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 27:29-32.
Higgins, L. C. 1971. A revision of Cryptantha subgenus Oreocarya. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin Biological Series 8:1-62.
Horn, N. 2000. Revision der Gattungen Plagiobothrys und Pectocarya in Chile und den angrenzenden Gebieten, Universität München, München.
Kelley, R. B. 2012. Cynoglossum. Pp. 468 in B. G. Baldwin, et al.(eds.), The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California. Second Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Las Peñas, M. L. 2003. Estudios cromosómicos de dos especies argentinas de Cryptantha (Boraginaceae). Kurtziana 30:77-79.
Las Peñas, M. L. 2005. Números cromosómicos de Cryptantha diffusa y C. maritima (Boraginaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Argentina 40:283 - 284.
Love, A. and D. Love. 1982. IOPB chromosome number reports LXXV. In A. Löve (ed.), Taxon 31: 344-360.
Mabry, M. E., R. A. Dowdy, L. M. Simpson, J. P. Rebman, and M. G. Simpson. 2016. Taxonomy of the winged popcorn flower: Cryptantha pterocarya (Boraginaceae). Phytotaxa 253: 97-130.
Mathew, K. and P. H. Raven. 1962. A new species of Cryptantha (section Circumscissae) from California and two recombinations (section Circumscissae and Angustifoliae). Madroño 16 :168-171.
Moore, D. M. 1981. Cromosome numbers of Fuegian angiosperms. Bol. Soc. Brot. 53: 995-1012.
Pérez-Moreau, R. L. 1976. Revisión del género Cryptantha en la Argentina (Boraginaceae). Darwiniana 20: 155-188.
Pérez-Moreau, R. L. and S. Crespo. 1999. Boraginaceae: Cryptantha. En: Zuloaga, F. O. & Morrone, O. (eds), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina II. Monographs in Systematic Botany
    from the Missouri Botanical Garden 72:377-378.
Popova, T. N., Z. A. Gudzhinskas, and E. A. Zemskova. 1990. The genus Amsinckia (Boraginaceae) in the flora of the USSR. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 75: 276-278.
Probatova, N. S., E. G. Rudyka, and A. P. Sokolovskaya. 1996. Chromosome numbers in synanthropic plants from the Russian Far East. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 82: 98-101.
Rattenbury, J. A. 1959. Chromosome Number Publication. Madroño 15: 49-52.
Ray, P. M. and H. F. Chisaki. 1957. Studies on Amsinckia. II. Relationships among the primitive species. American Journal of Botany 44: 537-544.
Schoen, D. J., M. O. Johnston, A. L'Heureux, and J. V. Marsolais. 1997. Evolutionary history of the mating system in Amsinckia (Boraginaceae). Evolution 51: 1090-1099.
Sivinski, R. C. 1993. Chromosome numbers for some North American Cryptantha. Phytologia 74: 459-463.
Strey, M. 1931. Karyologische studien an Boraginoideae. Planta 14: 682-730.
Taylor, R. L. and R. P. Brockman. 1966. Chromosome numbers for some western Canadian plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 44: 1093.
Van Loon, J. C. 1982. IOPB chromosome number reports LXXVII. Taxon 31: 76503764.
Veno, B. A. 1979. A revision of the genus Pectocarya (Boraginaceae) including reduction to synonymy of the genus Harpagonella (Boraginaceae). Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Ward, D. E. 1983. Chromosome counts for New Mexico and Southern Colorado. Phytologia 54: 302-308.





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