Office/Lab: SDSU Main Campus, Life Science North 204B/209
Phone: 619-594-7049 (office)/619-594-0114 (lab)
I am interested in the causes and consequences of variability in biological communities. My research focuses on patterns of variation in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests at multiple spatial and temporal scales throughout the species’ geographic range in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. As part of my research program, I have been examining the relative importance of numerous physical and biological factors in the structuring of kelp forest communities, as well as how these factors modify interactions among co-occurring species, with particular emphasis on large-scale phenomena (such as El Niño Southern Oscillations and global climate change).
A second focus of my research program has been to examine how opportunistic marine algae maintain populations in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, with particular attention on the role of dormant microscopic life-history stages. My future research plans involve continuing to assess the causes and consequences of variation in kelp forests while attempting to assess how different life-history traits allow some species to either take advantage of or buffer against variation in environmental conditions. By examining these processes at multiple scales over large geographic areas and long time periods, I hope my research will ultimately offer insights into the issue of generality, an often contentious but poorly understood issue in ecology.
I believe one of the fundamental goals in ecology is to explain temporal and spatial patterns in organism abundance and distribution. This encompasses a broad range of questions with the ultimate goal of understanding how populations and communities function in order to sustainably use and preserve them. My research focuses on five primary areas related to this charge:
- Assessing the causes and consequences of variability in coastal marine
communities at multiple spatial and temporal scales.
- Identifying the relative contribution of various biological and physical
factors to the structuring of these communities.
- Determining how different life-history traits allow populations to
take advantage of or buffer against environmental variability.
- Developing and expanding on experimental and statistical methods that
facilitate the study of organisms in the field.
- Assessing regional and local patterns of biodiversity in coastal marine
What unites these topics is the integration of organism demography and ecology with aspects of the physical and biological environment, and the use of numerous experimental and statistical approaches to discern the relative contribution of different environmental factors to the maintenance of coastal marine communities. I believe that a sound conceptual understanding of how organisms respond to their environment is fundamental to building a comprehensive research program in coastal marine ecology and to the progress of ecology in general.
I am strongly committed to teaching, both inside and outside the classroom. Regardless of personal views on teaching practices, I believe one thing to be universally true; students learn better when they are generally interested in the subject matter they are presented. While the ultimate responsibility for learning lies with the students themselves, I believe that we as educators can play a substantial role in generating enthusiasm in our students for the curricula we teach. This may be especially true for upper division and graduate level classes. In addition to formal classroom education, I believe that “hands-on” experience in the field is a tremendous avenue for teaching. Therefore, I have endeavored to bring as many undergraduate students as possible with me to the field to assist with my research. I have taken more than 100 graduate and undergraduate students to Baja California and on local trips to the San Diego area to study the kelp forest communities. While in the field, we routinely discuss aspects of coastal marine ecology, the outcomes and interpretations of scientific studies, and larger picture ideas concerning coastal marine ecology. It has been my experience that the students are generally enthusiastic about discussing these matters when they are immersed in field studies. My goals are to further increase undergraduate and graduate student participation in these activities at SDSU and ultimately develop a course on the ecology and natural history of Baja California. I have also brought ten undergraduate students into my lab to assist my graduate students and me with laboratory and fieldwork. The classes I teach are an integral part of undergraduate training for the Marine Biology Emphasis. Click on the links below to download the most recent syllabus to these courses.
Biology of the Algae (Biology 514) covers topics on seaweed and marine plant taxonomy, reproduction, evolution, thallus structure, ecology and biogeography. It has a strong laboratory component where students work with both live and prepared specimens to learn about seaweed thallus structure and taxonomy. It also has a strong field component where students are required to attend field trips to local beaches to learn about seaweed biogeography first hand. I lead one overnight trip to central California where students are exposed to larger issues concerning seaweed biogeography.
Univariate Statistical Methodology (Biology 597A) is a graduate-level biostatistics course that takes an in-depth look at statistical methodology, theory and application. Students in this course are taught probability theory as it relates to statistical hypothesis testing, data graphing, and a host of the most commonly used statistical procedures. This course relies heavily on a hands-on approach using computers. This class is designed to equip our students with the theoretical background and the applied knowledge to design and analyze most data sets in biology.
Life in the Sea (Biology 324) is an important course in our department that is aimed at non-Bio9logy majors and is perhaps the only avenue that these students have to gain experience with marine ecosystems. It is primarily a lecture course that covers nomenclature, taxonomy, theory and current research in marine ecosystems.
Ecology and the Environment (Biology 354) is an important course for our Biology majors that informs students about aspects of community and population ecology. We cover topics ranging from the nature of communities, nutrient cycling, primary and secondary production, global climate change, and human impacts on the environment.
Seminar in Aquatic Ecology (Biology 600) is a graduate seminar that changes topics each tim it is taught. Recent topics attempted to define what environmental catastrophes are from ecological, social, economic, and political biases. Future topics will introduce graduate students to theory and progress in ecological thinking and require students to familiarize themselves with historical ground-breaking papers in ecology.
Refereed Publications (*denotes publication with graduate student, **denotes publication with undergraduate student, TBD = to be determined)
*Kim, JH, E.J. Kang, K. Kim, H.J. Jeong, L. Kitack, M.S. Edwards, M.G. Park, BG. Lee, and K.Y. Kim (2015). Evaluation of carbon flux in vegetative bay based on ecosystem production and CO2 exchange driven by coastal autotrophs. Algae 30: 121-137.
*Konar, B.K., M.S. Edwards and T. Efird (2015). Local habitat and regional oceanographic influence on fish distribution patterns in the diminishing kelp forests across the Aleutian Archipelago. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 98: 1935-1951.
Forrest, M.J., M.S. Edwards, R. Rivera and J.R. Jaeger (in press). High prevalence and seasonal persistence of amphibian chytrid fungus infections in the desert-dwelling Amargosa toad, Anaxyrus nelson. Herpetological Conservation and Biology (TBD).
*Brown, M.B., M.S. Edwards and K.Y. Kim (2014). Effects of climate change on the physiology of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and grazing by purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Algae 29: 203-215.
Konar, B.K., M.S. Edwards and J.A. Estes (2014). Biological interactions maintain the boundaries between kelp forests and urchin barrens in the Aleutian Archipelago. Hydrobiologia 724: 91-107.
**VanMeter, K. and M.S. Edwards (2013). The effects of grazing on kelp zoospore dispersal potential. Journal of Phycology 49: 896-901.
*Torres-Moye, G., M.S. Edwards and GC Montaño –Moctezuma (2013). Benthic community studies in kelp forest habitats from the Southern California Bight. Ciencias Marinas 39: 239-252.
*Jones, C.L., T.W. Anderson and M.S. Edwards (2013). Evaluating eelgrass site quality by the settlement, performance, and survival of a marine fish. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 445: 61-68.
*Forrest, M.J., J.T. Kulongoski, M.S. Edwards, C.D. Farra and K. Belitz, (2013) Investigation of potential contamination of public water supply wells by hydrothermal waters in Napa and Sonoma Valleys, California. Applied Geochemistry 33: 25-40.
*Carney, L.T., A.J. Bohonak, M.S. Edwards and F. Alberto (2013). Genetic and experimental evidence for a mixed age, mixed origin bank of kelp microscopic stages in southern California. Ecology 94: 1955-1965.
Wilmers, C.C., J.A. Estes, M.S. Edwards, K.L. Laidre and B. Konar (2012). Do trophic cascades affect the storage and flux of atmospheric carbon? An analysis of sea otters and kelp forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 409-415.
Edwards, M.S. and B.K. Konar (2012). A comparison of dragon kelp, Eualaria fistulosa, (Phaeophyceae) fecundity in urchin barrens and nearby kelp beds throughout the Aleutian Archipelago. Journal of Phycology 48: 897-901.
*Borras-Chavez, R., M.S. Edwards and J. Vasquez (2012). Testing sustainable management in Northern Chile: harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales). A case study. Journal of Applied Phycology 24: 1655-1665.
*Dodge, C.A. and M. S. Edwards (2012). Seasonal variation in the effects of food availability on gametogenesis in the purple urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). Marine Biology 159: 427-433.
*Evans, L. and M.S. Edwards (2011). Bioaccumulation of Copper and Zinc by the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Algae 26: 265-275.
*Cie, D and M. Edwards (2011). Vertical distribution of kelp zoospores. Phycologia 50:340-350.
*Fejtek, S.M., M.S. Edwards, K.Y. Kim (2011). Elk kelp, Pelagophycus porra, distribution limited due to susceptibility of microscopic stages to high light. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 396: 194-201.
*Carney, L.T. and M.S. Edwards (2010). Role of nutrient fluctuations and delayed development in gametophyte reproduction by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) in southern California. Journal of Phycology 46:987-996.
Konar, B., K. Iken, J.J. Cruz-Motta, L. Beneditti-Cicchi, A. Knowlton, G. Pohle, P. Milosavich, M.S. Edwards, T. Trott, E. Kimani, R. Riosmena-Rodriguez, M. Wong, S. Jenkins. A. Silva, I.S. Pinto and Y. Shirayama (2010). Current patterns of macroalgal diversity and biomass in Northern Hemisphere rocky shores. PLOS One 5: e13195.
Edwards, M.S. and K.Y. Kim (2010). Diurnal variation in photosynthetic performance in giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) at different depths as estimated using PAM fluorometry. Aquatic Botany 92: 119-128.
Konar, B.K., K. Iken and M.S. Edwards (2009) Depth-stratified community zonation patterns on Gulf of Alaska rocky shores. Marine Ecology 30: 63-73.
Edwards, M.S. and M. Tinker (2009). Monitoring benthic algal communities: a comparison of targeted and coefficient sampling methods. Algae 24:1-10.
*Cie, D.K. and M.S. Edwards (2008). The effects of high irradiance on the settlement competency and viability of kelp zoospores. Journal of Phycology 44:495-500.
*Chenolet, H. K. Iken, B. Konar and M. Edwards (2007). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Echinoderms in Rocky Nearshore Areas of Alaska. The NaGISA World Congress 11:11-28.
*Matson, P.G. and M.S. Edwards (2007). Effects of ocean temperature on the southern range limits of two understory kelps, Pterygophora californica and Eisenia arborea, at multiple life-stages. Marine Biology 151: 1941-1949.
Foster, M.S., M.S Edwards, D.C Reed, D.R. Schiel and R.C. Zimmerman (2006). Top-down vs. bottom-up effects in kelp forests. Science 313: 1737-1738.
Edwards, M.S. and J.A. Estes (2006). Catastrophe, recovery, and range limitation in NE Pacific kelp forests: a large-scale perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320:79-87.
*Carney, L.C. and M.S. Edwards (2006). Cryptic processes in the sea: a review of delayed development in the microscopic stages of marine macroalgae. Algae 21:161-168.
*Matson, P.G. and M.S. Edwards (2006). Stipe hollowing in Eisenia arborea: variation across a latitudinal gradient. Phycologia 45:343-348.
Edwards, M.S. and G. Hernández-Carmona (2005). Delayed recovery of giant kelp near its southern range limit in the North Pacific following El Niño. Marine Biology 147:273-279.
Edwards, M.S. (2004). Estimating scale dependency in disturbance impacts: El Niños and giant kelp forests in the Northeast Pacific. Oecologia 138: 436-447.
Clark, R.P., M.S. Edwards and M.S. Foster. (2004). Effects of shade from multiple kelp canopies on an understory algal assemblage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 267: 107-119.
Graham, M.H. and M.S. Edwards (2001). Statistical significance versus factor fit: estimating the importance of individual factor in ecological analysis of variance. Oikos 93: 505-513.
Edwards, M.S. (2001). Scale-dependent patterns of community regulation in giant kelp forests. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Santa Cruz.
Edwards, M. S. (2000). The role of microscopic life-history stages in the persistence of marine macroalgae in seasonally variable environments. Ecology 81(9): 2404-2415.
Edwards, M.S. (1999). Using in situ substrate sterilization and fluorescence microscopy in studies of microscopic stages of marine macroalgae. Proceedings form the 16th Annual International Seaweeds Symposium. Hydrobiologia 398/399: 253-259.
Edwards, M.S. (1998). Effects of long-term kelp canopy exclusion on the abundance of the annual alga Desmarestia ligulata. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228:309-326.
Edwards, M.S. (1996). Factors affecting the recruitment of the annual alga Desmarestia ligulata along the central California coast. Masters thesis, San Francisco State University.
Edwards, M.S. and S.D. Connell (2012). “Competition” In: Seaweed Ecophysiology and Ecology. Pgs 135-156. Edited by C. Wiencke and K. Bischof. Published by Springer.
Edwards, M. S. (in press) “Kelp forests” In: Ocean and Coastal Management Special Edition – Blue Carbon. Edited by Terri Young. Published by UNEP-WCMC
Edwards, M.S “Kelp forests”. Book chapter in the Encyclopedia of Oceanography and Marine Science. Published by the Moschovitis Group.
Melissa Blando (M.S.)
Research Interests: Conservation and aquaculture techniques of southern California abalone
Thesis topic: Effect of parental diet and larval rearing temperature on the settlement of Haliotis species.
Scott Gabara (Ph.D.)
Research Interests: Kelp forest ecology, rhodolith bed ecology, importance of algal subsidies to kelp forest and adjacent food webs, trophic ecology of predators, Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA)
Dissertation topic: Understanding and comparing dynamics across latitude in Aleutian, Central/Southern California, and Baja California, Mexico urchin barrens.
Tristin McHugh (M.S.)
B.S. Marine Biology, Minor Legal Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz
Research Interests: Ecology, kelp forests, algae, physiology, disturbances
Thesis topic: Red algal light adaptations in response to frequent and infrequent disturbance events.
Sadie Small (M.S.)
B.S. Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution, University of California, San Diego
Research Interests: Phycology, biogeography, marine invasions
Thesis topic: Influence of abiotic factors on growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction in the invasive alga Sargassum horneri.
Pike Spector (M.S.)
B.S. Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz
Research Interests: nearshore community ecology, ecosystem producivity and function, phycology, algae physiology, community responses to climate change, outreach and education
Thesis topic: Differences in net ecosystem productivity between kelp forests and urchin barrens – variation across a latitudinal gradient.
Genoa Sullaway (M.S.)
Research Interests: Marine ecosystem production and function, patterns in marine carbon cycling, invasive species
Thesis topic: Assessing the consequences of an invasive marine alga on ecosystem production.
Melissa Ward (Ph.D.)*
B.S. Biology, University of California, Irvine
Research Interests: Marine carbon cycling, coastal oceanography, seagrass ecology
Dissertation topic: Contribution of coastal biota in the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.
*Co-advised with Walter Oechel