Current and Past Projects
1. Induced responses of algae to herbivores
Numerous species of plants and prey induce morphological, chemical, or behavioral defenses in response to cues associated with consumers. Despite the importance of induced responses to community structure, we know relatively little about the ecology of these interactions in phytoplankton and seaweeds. Recent work in my lab demonstrated that 1) seaweeds may indirectly influence competitive interactions between herbivore species via inducible responses and 2) some phytoplankton responses are surprisingly herbivore-specific. We are also testing the importance of inducible responses to the timing and size of phytoplankton blooms.
2. Geographic variation in plant-herbivore interactions
Although we have a good sense of the diverse taxa exhibiting inducible defenses, our knowledge of how inducible defenses within a species vary spatially is surprisingly poor. We are currently examining geographic variation in inducible defenses in three different systems and scales; salt marsh plants along the east coast, seaweeds across 1000s of km, and seaweeds across 10-100s of km.
3. Human-induced alteration of intertidal communities
Rocky intertidal communities are highly valued because of their visibility and accessibility to people and their ecological importance. However, people can negatively impact these communities both knowingly and unknowingly. Using field caging experiments, we are addressing the following two questions: 1) Does trampling influence barnacle communities and if so, how do these influences vary with ontogeny and site? and 2) Does predator removal indirectly alter plant production and diversity in southern California salt marshes? Additionally, we have started studying the impact of people on harvested snails in San Diego.
4. Long-term ecological monitoring
Rocky intertidal communities provide critical habitat to marine and terrestrial species and these habitats are threatened by a variety of stressors including climate change, invasive species, pollution, and human trampling. Unfortunately, we currently lack baseline data on the health and natural variability of these communities in some regions and, thus, are unable to predict the occurrence and consequences of such environmental changes. We are developing a long-term, low-cost protocol that will detail procedures for monitoring this habitat in New England. We are especially interested in broad-scale comparisons (e.g. Atlantic vs. Pacific shores).
5. Learned aversions in marine consumers
Learning provides an ecological response to changing prey availability and defenses by allowing consumers to add novel foods to their diets while reducing the risk of consuming noxious foods. Unfortunately, how consumers learn to accept or avoid new foods is better understood for terrestrial than for marine consumers where studies of diet learning have been infrequent. We are conducting comparative studies of learning among consumers to improve our understanding of learned aversions and the prey that exploit these behaviors in their consumers.
Long, J. D. and L.D. Porturas (2014). Herbivore impacts on marsh production depend upon a compensatory continuum mediated by salinity stress. PLOS ONE 9: e110419.
Bracken, M. E. S., R. Dolecal, and J.D. Long (2014). Community context mediates the top-down versus bottom-up effects of grazers on rocky shores. Ecology 95: 1458-1463.
Dolecal, R.E. and J.D. Long (2014). Chemically mediated foraging by subtidal marine predators: a field test of tritrophic cues. Marine Ecology Progress Series 498:161-171.
Long J.D., G. Toth, and H. Pavia (2013). Proximate and ultimate causes for transatlantic variation in seaweed defenses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 493:83-89.
Dolecal, R.E. and J.D. Long (2013). Ephemeral macroalgae display spatial variation in relative palatability. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 440:233−237.
Long, J.D., L. Porturas, E. Jones, C. Kwan, and G.C. Trussell (2013). Seaweed traits linked to wave exposure determine predator avoidance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 483:143-151.
Long, J.D. and M.E. Hay (2012). The impact of trait-mediated indirect interactions in marine communities. In T. Ohgushi, O. Schmitz, and R.D. Holt, editors. Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives. Cambridge University Text, Cambridge, NY, USA.
Long, J.D., E. Cochrane, and R.E. Dolecal (2011). Previous disturbance enhances the negative effects of trampling on barnacles. Marine Ecology Progress Series 437:165-173.
Gutow L., J.D. Long, O. Cerda, I.A. Hinojosa, E. Rothäusler, F. Tala, and M. Thiel (2011). Herbivorous amphipods inhabit protective microhabitats within thalli of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology 159:141–149.
Long, J.D., J.L. Mitchell, and E. E. Sotka (2011). Local consumers induce resistance differentially between Spartina populations in the field. Ecology 92:180–188.
Long, J.D., G.C. Trussell, T. Elliman (2009). Linking invasions and biogeography: isolation differentially affects exotic and native plant diversity. Ecology 90(4): 863-868.
Long, J.D., G.W. Smalley, T.A. Barsby, J.T. Anderson, and M.E. Hay (2007). Chemical cues induce consumer-specific defenses in a bloom-forming marine phytoplankton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 10512-10517.
Long, J.D., R.S. Hamilton, and J.L. Mitchell (2007). Asymmetric competition via induced resistance: specialist herbivores indirectly suppress generalist preference and populations. Ecology 88(5): 1232-1240.
Long, J.D. and G.C. Trussell (2007). Geographic variation in seaweed induced responses to herbivory. Marine Ecology Progress Series 333:75-80.
Long, J.D., M.E. Frischer, and C.Y. Robertson (2007). A Phaeocystis globosa bloom associated with upwelling in the subtropical South Atlantic Bight. Journal of Plankton Research 29: 769-774.
Nejstgaard, J.C., K.W. Tang, M. Steinke, J. Dutz, M. Koski, E. Antajan, and J.D. Long (2007). Zooplankton grazing on Phaeocystis: a quantitative review and future challenges. Biogeochemistry 83: 147-172.
Whipple, S.J., B.C. Patten, P.G. Verity, J.C. Nejstgaard, J.D. Long, J.T. Anderson, A. Jacobsen, A. Larsen, J. Martinez-Martinez, and S.R. Borrett (2007). Gaining integrated understanding of Phaeocystis spp. (Prymnesiophyceae) through model-driven laboratory and mesocosm studies. Biogeochemistry 83: 293-309.
Nejstgaard, J.C., M.E. Frischer, P.G. Verity, J.T. Anderson, A. Jacobsen, M.J. Zirbel, A. Larsen, J. Martinez-Martinez, A.F. Sazhin, T. Walters, D.A. Bronk, S.J. Whipple, S.R. Borrett, B.C. Patten, and J.D. Long (2006). Plankton development and trophic transfer in sea water enclosures with nutrients and Phaeocystis pouchetii added. Marine Ecology Progress Series 321: 90-121.
Long, J.D. and M.E. Hay (2006). When intraspecific exceeds interspecific variance: effects of phytoplankton morphology and growth phase on copepod feeding and fitness. Limnology and Oceanography 51(2): 988-996.
Long, J.D. and M.E. Hay (2006). Fishes learn aversions to a nudibranch’s chemical defense. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307: 199-208.
Weiss, M.R., E.M. Lind, M.T. Jones, J.D. Long, and J.L. Maupin (2003). Uniformity of leaf shelter construction by larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the silver spotted skipper. Journal of Insect Behavior 16(4): 465-480.