Cognitive Ergonomics Research Facility San Diego State University
Home About CERF Research Collaborations Commercial

   The Cognitive Ergonomics Research Facility and EyeTracking Inc.

Sandra Marshall, Ph.D.,
Chief Executive Officer & President, EyeTracking, Inc.

Dr. Marshall is Professor of Psychology at San Diego State University and Director of the Cognitive Ergonomics Research Facility at SDSU. For the past 15 years, she has conducted basic research sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation, and National Institute of Education. Currently, she directs three major projects, all of which use eye-tracking measures to investigate aspects of cognitive processing and decision-making.

Dr. Marshall’s research has focused on two main areas: cognition and assessment. While making substantial contribution to theory, she has also consistently worked to link her work with practical applications. For example, she first presented a new cognitive theory in her book, Schemas in Problem Solving, published by Cambridge University Press in 1995. She then continued to work with this theory in the applied context of Navy officers making tactical decisions in near-warfare situations. In this effort, she has shown that her theory accounts for important aspects of the decision-making process. She has also shown that the models implementing the theory provide a good basis for assessing performance of the officers. Currently, her work is being used by developers of a new hand-held computer assessment tool at the primary training lab of the Navy, the Naval Anti-air Warfare Center, Training & Systems Division (NAWC/TSD), in Orlando, FL. It is also being considered as the underlying structure for a new display system for officers to have on new Navy warships in 2021.

During the past three years, Dr. Marshall turned her attention to the potential of eye tracking for understanding cognitive activity. Sponsored by various awards from the Department of Defense, she has led her research team in their evaluation of these systems and in the creation of new techniques for using them. She has successfully incorporated the use of eye-tracking data in her research. For example, she and her associates routinely take eye tracking instruments to the Surface Warfare Officers School in Newport, RI, to assess how the officers use a new computer display. She has gathered large amounts of experimental data in the CERF lab at San Diego State University for use in evaluating how students perform on tasks of problem solving and decision-making. She is also exploring new methods for assessing cognitive workload with psychological and physiological measures.

Dr. Marshall’s work has been widely recognized as innovative and useful. In 1996, she was asked by the American Psychological Association to represent basic psychological research at a special forum held for members of the U.S. Congress. This forum was designed to show the importance and use of theoretical research sponsored by various agencies of the Department of Defense. Her work was selected because of its link between psychological theory and practical training applications for the Navy.

Cassandra Davis
Chief Technology Officer, EyeTracking, Inc.

Ms. Davis joins from the Cognitive Ergonomics Research Facility at SDSU where, as Program Specialist, she had primary responsibility for technological and informational development from 1996-1999. She has considerable experience with several different eye-tracking systems (both hardware and software components), and she has developed and maintained networking capabilities for several laboratories. Prior to joining the research group at CERF, she was the Computer Help Desk Coordinator for Law Enforcement Online (LEO), a cooperative undertaking between Louisiana State University and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to build a nationwide online computer service for sworn law enforcement officers. Her responsibilities for LEO included developing a 24/7 Computer Help Desk, training FBI training coordinators, supervising LEO Help Desk Operators, and serving as the Network Administrator. Ms. Davis is a graduate of the University of Iowa.

Sylvia Knust, M.S.,
Senior Usability Manager, EyeTracking, Inc.

Ms. Knust completed her Masters in Industrial Organizational Psychology at San Diego State University in May, 2000. She has been working for the Cognitive Ergonomics Research Facility since 1997 conducting numerous research studies using eye-tracking technology, including her final thesis. She has been working for EyeTracking, Inc. since 1999 conducting usability studies and working directly with clients to meet study objectives. As lead on several projects, she has developed solid foundation in identifying study objectives, developing study design and test materials, collecting and interpreting eye data, conducting qualitative interviews, and compiling and presenting final results.

EyeTracking, Inc. has a state-of-the-art eye-tracking research facility in San Diego. It includes two fully-equipped testing rooms and an observation room with one-way mirrors. This facility allows for digital recording and live streaming of eye-tracking sessions. The facility is conveniently located off Interstate 8 near San Diego State University, easily accessible to visiting clients as well as research participants.

ETI also has portable eye-tracking and data recording systems and is capable of conducting eye-tracking studies on location anywhere in the U.S, as well as select locations abroad.

Curriculum Vitae

Index of Cognitive Activity: Measuring the Impact of Augmented Cognition. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. 3/15/02-9/30/05.
Neural Network Declutter Tool: Incorporating Cognitive Models into Decision Support Systems. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. 4/1/00-10/31/02.
Cognitive Workload in METOC Operations. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program, 2/1/00-1/31/03.
Fielding a New Hybrid Model of Human Learning. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program, 1/1/00-12/31/02.
Integrating DVD Technology with Advances in Eye Tracking for Tactical Decision Making. DOD DURIP Award. N00014-98-1-0466. 4/1/98-3/31/99.
Understanding and measuring cognitive workload: A coordinated multidisciplinary approach. DOD MURI Award. (In collaboration with George Mason University. Principal Investigators: L. Adelman (GMU), D. Boehm-Davis (GMU), W. Gray (GMU), S. Marshall (SDSU), R. Pozos (SDSU). 5/1/97-4/30/2002.
Monitoring Situational Awareness in Tactical Information Displays with Eye-Tracking Instrumentation. DOD DURIP Award. N00014-95-1-1091. 7/1/95-6/30/96.
Hybrid Learning of the NRL Navigation Task Using Marshall's Schema Theory. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-95-1-0860. 5/15/95-5/14/97.
Learning in Tactical Decision-Making Situations: A Hybrid Model of Schema Development. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-95-1-0237. 1/1/95-12/31/99.
Decision-Making Schemas in Rapidly Changing and Ambiguous Situation. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-93-1-0525. 4/15/93 – 8/31/2000
Content Effects in Problem Solving: One Year Renewal. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-89-J-1393. 1/1/90 - 12/31/90
Schemas in Problem Solving: Two Year Renewal. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-90-J-1143. 10/1/89 - 9/30/91
One Year Continuation: Schemas in Problem Solving. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-85-K-0661. 10/1/88 - 9/30/89.
Equipment Award: Four XEROX 1186 Artificial Intelligence Computer Workstations. Office of Naval Research. 1987. Equipment Award: Three Xerox 1108 Artificial Intelligence Computer Workstations. Funded by the Office of Naval Research; machines on loan from the University of Pittsburgh. 4/1/86 - 3/31/87.
Schemas in Problem Solving: An Integrated Model of Learning, Memory, and Instruction. Office of Naval Research, Cognitive Science Program. N00014-85-K-0661. 9/1/85 - 9/30/88.
Cognitive and Instructional Applications for New Eye-Tracking Technologies. Invited address presented at the International Conference on Application of Neuroscience Technology to Educational and Social Research, Hong Kong, May 2002.
Eye Tracking: A Rich Source of Information for User Modeling. Invited address to be presented at the 8th International Conference on User Modeling, UM'2001, Sonthofen,Germany, July 2001.
EyeTracking: A Tool for Tomorrow’s Web-Based Training Designer. Invited address to be presented at the WBT Producer Conference & Expo, San Diego, April 2000.
Cognitive Applications of New Computational Technologies in Eye Tracking. Invited address given at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Le Mans, France, July 1999.
Tactical Decision Making: How Do You Know When You Need to Act? Invited presentation made at the invitation of the American Psychological Association as part of an exhibit presented to the U.S. House of Representatives by the Association of American Universities, entitled “Basic Research in the National Defense.” Washington, DC: May 1997.
Method and Apparatus for Eye Trackinig and Monitoring Pupil Dilation to Evaluate Cognitive Activity. Patent application approved February 2000, U. S. Patent No. 6,090,051.
Methods for Monitoring Affective Brain Function. Patent Pending, U.S. Patent Application 09/801,068.




Application of Neuro-science Technology to
Educational and Social Research, Hong Kong.
S. Marshall, Cognitive and Instructional Applications for New Eye-Tracking Technologies May, 2002.

IEEE 7th Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants, Scottsdale, AZ.
S. Marshall, The Index of Cognitive Activity: Measuring Cognitive Workload. Presented in D. Schmorrow (Chair), Tomorrow’s Human Computer Interaction from Vision to Reality: Building cognitively aware computational systems. Symposium. September 18, 2002.

LHICSS-36 IEEE Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, Hawaii.
S. Marshall, B. Dickson, & C. Pleydell-Pearce, Combining EEG and Pupil Dilation to Measure Cognitive Workload: A Case Study. January 6-9, 2003



©2002 Cognitive Ergonomic Research Facility Contact UsCERF HomeEyeTracking IncSDSU