The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and determinants of non-smoking policies, tobacco use and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure for Mexican American residents in San Diego City. Based on Social Learning Theory, a wide range of possible "determinants" of residential tobacco policies, ETS exposure in homes and tobacco use by family members will be selected and measured.
The role of acculturation and exposure to public policies and media campaigns will be especially addressed by comparing three cities representing three different steps in migrant flow of Mexican migrants to the U.S. and a gradient of tobacco control activities. 1,500 adult Mexicans or Americans of Mexican origin residing in San Diego City will be compared to 400 Mexican adult residents in Tijuana and 400 adults living in Guadalajara, Mexico.
Participants will be surveyed by phone surveys in San Diego, and home surveys in Mexico regarding smoking policies, their strategies of enforcing residential non-smoking policies, ETS exposure for residents, tobacco use (i.e. smokers) and health status. Demographic, behavioral, sociological and cultural variables will be collected from interviews of target respondents in each selected residence.
Following a broad behavioral ecological model, we will test the hypotheses that social, cultural and acculturation processes predict tobacco no-smoking policies, ETS exposure and smoking status of residents. It is hypothesized that the influence of community-wide tobacco control programs, especially media and community policies limiting smoking in public settings will be different in the three cities. It is also hypothesized that the degree of tobacco use, ETS exposure, and use of residential policies banning smoking will differ by community-wide tobacco control programs. These hypotheses will be tested by statistical analyses based on target respondent reports and based on independently collected information about local policies and media exposure.
Results will inform theory and practical public health interventions for tobacco control targeting Mexican American residents of San Diego and by extension other Hispanics elsewhere in the State. These results also will inform processes, including the California Tobacco Control program's effects, which might influence tobacco use/policies in Mexican residences. Results may inform directions for tobacco control, especially residential policies, in Mexico and other developing countries. Results will provide current population estimates for adult and youth ETS exposure levels among San Diego Mexican-American residents and will help in the design of culturally tailored interventions for reducing those levels. Moreover, the U.S.&endash;Mexico comparison will provide pilot information about cross-national influences to set the stage for international cooperation for tobacco control.
Principal Investigator: Mel Hovell, PhD, MPH
Co-Principal Investigator: Ana P. Martinez-Donate, Ph.D.
Source: Tobacco Related Disease Research Program of the University of California