REFERENCE: Hofstetter, C. R., Hovell, M. F., Sallis, J. F., Zakarian, J., Beirich, H., Mulvihill, M., Keating, K., Emerson, J. (1995). Exposure to sports mass media and physical activity characteristics among ethnically diverse adolescents. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition, and Health, 4, 234-242.
A survey of participation in physical activity and sports media exposure was administered to an ethnically diverse sample of ninth- and eleventh-grade students in lower-middle-class high schools in a major West Coast city. This study provides support for a social-involvement explanation of the use of sports and athletic mass and interpersonal media within the broader context of social learning theory. Adolescents, regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, who report greater media exposure to sports and athletics are also more personally involved and participate more in vigorous physical activities and other forms of sports and athletics, both in and outside of school. Increased exposure to sports in mass media may enhance interventions designed to promote physical activity among adolescents.