REFERENCE: Armstrong, C. A., Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R. (1993). Stages of chnage, self-efficacy, and adoption of vigorous exercise: A prospective analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 390-402.
Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p<.001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage o fchange was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.