REFERENCE: Hovell, M. F., Calhoun, B., Elder, J. P. (1988). Modification of students' snacking: Comparison of behavioral teaching methods. Health Education, 19, 26-33.

Americans consume snack foods costing over five billion dollars per year, the younger age groups comprising the largest group of snackers (California State Nutrition Council, 1977). Unfortunately, snacks often consist of high caloric and low nutrient density with high saturated fats, sodium, and preservatives concentrations. Youths and others are subject to fad diets, food binges, skipping breakfast, and other poor nutrition habits (USDHEW, 1979). Such patterns, established during childhood, may be difficult to change as adults.


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