Behavioral Ecological Model
Learning theories of behavior provide the theoretical orientation at CBEACH. Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning paradigms, and their extension to multi-level cultural reinforcement contingencies are fundamental to understanding the etiology of infectious and chronic disease. Learning theories complement medical models of health and wellness by providing a framework for understanding and changing behavior to improve health.
The Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) is an extension of selectionist and environmental operant models of behavior. The BEM stresses the function of behavior (eg, consequences produced by the behavior) over the form or topography of behavior. It also stresses environmental influences on (i.e., consequences of) behavior. The BEM extends the understanding of populations' behavior and culture by reliance on a hierarchy of interacting reinforcement contingencies. The BEM assumes an interaction among both physical and social contingencies to explain and ultimately control health behavior.
Image adapted from: Hovell MF, Wahlgren DR, Gehrman C. The Behavioral Ecological Model: Integrating public health and behavioral science. In DiClemente RJ, Crosby R, Kegler M, (eds.). New and Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice & Research. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, California, 2002.
Information related to or informed by the model can be found in the following chapters:
Hovell MF, Wahlgren DR, Adams MA. The Logical and Empirical Basis for the Behavioral Ecological Model. In RJ DiClemente, R Crosby, M Kegler, (eds.). Emerging Theories and Models in Health Promotion Practice and Research (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 2009. p. 415-49.
Hovell MF, Wahlgren DR, Gehrman C. The Behavioral Ecological Model: Integrating public health and behavioral science. In DiClemente RJ, Crosby R, Kegler M, (eds.). New and Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice & Research. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, California, 2002.
Adapted from the book review: Michael Reece, Health Education & Behavior 2003;30: 627-629:
Hovell MF, Wahlgren DR, Russos S. Preventive medicine & cultural contingencies: The great natural experiment. In Lamal PA, editor. Cultural Contingencies: Behavior Analytic Perspectives on Cultural Practices. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publications; 1997. pp. 1-29.
Hovell MF, Kaplan R, Hovell F. Analysis of preventive medical services in the U.S. In Lamal PA, editor. Behavior Analysis of Societies and Cultural Practices. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing; 1991.
Sallis J, Hovell MF. Determinants of exercise behavior. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Vol. 18, Baltimore: Williams Wilkins; 1990.
Information related to or informed by the model can be found in the following articles (listed by recency):
Dresler-Hawke E, Veer E. Making healty eating messages more effective: combining integrated marketing communication with the behavior [sic] ecological model. Int J Consumer Studies 2006;30:318-26.
Mirandola M, Baldassari D, Sandri M, Ughetti R, Zan A, Cardini G, Concia E. Fattori ecologico-comportamentalie infezione da hiv in giovani omosessualia verona, padova, trento e bolzano. Conference proceedings: Psychological, neuropsychiatric and social research in HIV/AIDS. Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Rome, November 15-16, 2004. Proceedings edited by Anna A Colucci , AM Luzi, P Gallo, F Starace, L Cafaro, G Rezza. 2006, vi. Rapporti ISTISAN 06/20 (in Italian)
Zellner JA, Martinez-Donate AP, Hovell MF, Sipan CL, Blumberg EJ, Carrizosa CM, Rovniak L. Feasibility and use of school-based condom availability programs in Tijuana, Mexico. AIDS Behav 2006 November;10:649-57.
Adams MA, Hovell MF, Irvin V, Sallis JF, Coleman KJ, Liles S. Promoting stair use by modeling: an experimental application of the Behavioral Ecological Model. Am J Health Promot 2006 November;21:101-9.
Rovniak LS, Johnson-Kozlow MF, Hovell MF. Reducing the gap between the economic costs of tobacco and funds for tobacco training in schools of public health. Public Health Rep 2006 September;121:538-46.
Slonim AB, Roberto AJ, Downing CR, Adams IF, Fasano NJ, Davis-Satterla L, Miller MA. Adolescents' knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding hepatitis B: insights and implications for programs targeting vaccine-preventable diseases. J Adol Health 2005;36:178&endash;86.
Hovell M, Daniel J. Defining residential tobacco home policies: a behavioural and cultural perspective. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:661-2.
DeBate RD, Pyle GF. The Behavioral Ecologica Model: A framework for early WIC participation. Am J Health Studies 2004;19:138-47.
Zakarian JM, Hovell MF, Sandweiss RD, Hofstetter CR, Matt GE, Bernert JT, Pirkle J, Hammond SK. Behavioral counseling for reducing children's ETS exposure: implementation in community clinics. Nicotine Tob Res 2004 December;6:1061-74.
Martinez-Donate A, Hovell MF, Blumberg EJ, Zellner J, Sipan C, Shillington AM, Carrizosa C., Gender differences in condom-related behaviors and attitudes among Mexican adolescents living on the U.S.-Mexico border. AIDS Educ Prev 2004
Martinez-Donate A, Hovell MF, Zellner J, Sipan C, Blumberg EJ, Carrizosa C. Evaluation of two school-based HIV prevention interventions in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. Journal of Sex Research 2004;41:267-78.
Schroeder ST, Hovell MF, Kolody B, Elder J. Use of newsletters to promote pro-environmental political action: An experimental analysis. 2003. The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2004;37:427-429.
Hovell MF, Roussos S, Hill L Johnson NW, Squier C, Gyenes M. Engineering clinician leadership and success in tobacco control: recommendations for policy and practice in Hungary. European Journal of Dental Education 2004;8(s4):51-60.
Guzman BL, Casad BJ, Schlehofer-Sutton MM, Villanueva CM, Feria A. CAMP: A community-based approach to promoting safe sex behaviour in adolescence. J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2003;13:269&endash;83.
DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM. Human Immunodeficiency Virus prevention for adolescents: windows of opportunity for optimizing intervention effectiveness. Arch Pediatr Adol Med 2003;157:319-320.
Hovell M, Martinez-Donate A. Comprehensive tobacco control in Hungary: A practical guide. Dental Hirek 2001;8:36-40.
Hovell M, Martinez-Donate A. Comprehensive tobacco control in Hungary: A theoretical guide. Dental Hirek 2002;1:30-34.
Wahlgren DR, Hovell MF, Slymen DJ, Conway TL, Hofstetter CR, Jones JA. Predictors of tobacco use initiation in adolescents: A two-year prospective study and theoretical discussion. Tobacco Control 1997;6:95-103.
Lavelle JM, Hovell MF, West MP, Wahlgren DR. Promoting law enforcement for child protection: A community analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1992;25:885-892.
Johns MB, Hovell MF, Ganiatis T, Peddecord KM, Agras WS. Primary care and health promotion: A model for preventive medicine. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1987;3:346-357.
Hovell MF, Elder JP, Blanchard J, Sallis JF. Behavior analysis and public health perspectives: Combining paradigms to effect prevention. Education and Treatment of Children 1986;9:287-306.
Hovell MF, Mewborn CR, Randle Y, Fowler-Johnson S. Risk of excess weight gain in university women: A three-year community controlled analysis. Addictive Behaviors 1985;10:15-28.