Resources and Videos

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Click the links below to download the interview we used in our large-scale study of Grades 2, 4, 7, and 11 students. 

Project Z Problem-Solving Interview (Integers)
Student-Response Pages
Coding Key

If you use the interview in your work, please be sure to recognize both the National Science Foundation and our project by using the following citations:

This instrument is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number DRL-0918780. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF. 

If you publish work in which you use the instrument, please acknowledge NSF by including the lines above in a footnote, and acknowledge our project by using the following reference: 

Lamb, L. (PI), Bishop, J., & Philipp, R. (co-PIs). 2009-2013.Mapping Developmental Trajectories of Students' Conceptions of Integers. National Science Foundation Grant, DRL-0918780.  



Jacob, a first grader, explains how he sums -5 and -2.

Violet, a second grader, explains how she solves the equation 2 – x = 6.

Jacob solves the equation -7 – x = -5.

Violet solves the equation 5 + x = 2.

Violet solves the equation x + 5 = 3.